Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Open-label study of risperdone in children with severe disruptive Research Paper

Open-label study of risperdone in children with severe disruptive behaviors and below-average IQ - Research Paper Example The drug acts by blocking the postsynaptic function of dopamine and serotonin receptors in the brain, however, how it is able to improve the behavior is still unknown (McCracken et al, 2002). These drugs enhance protection against extrapyramidal symptoms (Findling, 2003). This is one of the prime reasons why risperidone is used more frequently for the treatment of behavioral disorders among children (Risperidone in Children with Autism, 2002). So far, it is one of the few drugs that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration or FDA to treat aggressive behavior and irritability among children with autism (Buck, 2008). This approval was expanded in 2007 to include treatment of cases suffering from bipolar disorder in children 10 years of age, and children with schizophrenia 13 years of age and over (Buck, 2008). The recommended dosage in children is less than 1 mg per day, which can be given once or twice daily. The drug takes at least one week to start showing its effects, where the child may become calmer and less aggressive in nature (Eapen and Guraraj, 2005). The duration of the drug is variable, and is prescribed based on individual needs. Studies are showing positive correlation between the uses of the drug and lessening of the effects of aggression among children (Eapen and Gururaj, 2005, McCracken et al, 2002). A common side effect of the drug is EPS or extrapyramidal side effects, which include muscle rigidity, eye rolling and restlessness (Eapen and Gururaj, 2005). Usually the EPS is reversed by the administration of diphenhydramine 25 mg, within half an hour of the episode. There is still somewhat limited number of studies about the side effects of the drugs and more research in this area is needed. Children with ADHD receiving the drug for a prolonged time are likely to display tardive dyskinesia, which is reversible after discontinuation of the drug (Robb, 2010). Other less common side effects include muscle spasms and stiffness, agitatio n and feeling of restlessness, difficulty in swallowing, unexplained fever confusion, and fast and irregular heartbeat respectively. Children can also rarely display high blood sugar levels, increased prolactine horomones and high blood lipid levels (Eapena dn Gururaj, 2005). Risperidone increases appetite and sleep, which is why it is of concern in obese children. Other probable side effects may include increased risk to metabolic syndrome, diabetes or increased lipids. These effects can be utilized for children who have low appetite or who are restless and difficult sleepers (Eapen and Gururaj, 2005). The selection of the topic for research is justified. There is need to expand the research and learn more about the mechanism of action of the drug, and how it affects the behavioral problems among children. Alongside, new research in the same area will help in reinforcing the already found conclusions as well as identify possible new areas of research, such as how to reduce the side effects of the drug among children. As stated in the study by Eapen and Gururaj, (2005), ‘Although psychostimulants remain the mainstay of pharmacological treatment for ADHD, they may not be tolerated by some children, may be ineffective in some, and in yet others may exacerbate a comorbid medical condition such as seizures or tics’(Eapen and Gururaj

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