Saturday, December 28, 2019

Structure Of The Derivatives Market Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 13 Words: 4034 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Cause and effect essay Did you like this example? Financial market for derivatives is called derivatives market. Derivatives market is a financial instrument that provides a safety tools and effective management risk of tools in financial futures and commodity products. Derivatives market also manages the fluctuation of stock index future market, option market, interest rate and stocks. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Structure Of The Derivatives Market Finance Essay" essay for you Create order With the establishment of derivatives market, it is hope that the investors and the corporations can manage their fluctuations of the market. The example of derivatives product in Malaysia such as KLOFFE, COMMEX and MDEX. Historically, the development of derivatives market in Malaysia started in 1980, as a Kuala Lumpur Commodity Exchange (KLCE), the first futures exchange in Southeast Asia establish offering palm oil futures contract. In 1995, Kuala Lumpur Options and Financial Futures Exchange (KLOFFE) were introduced. Its operation is for launching a stock index futures contract called KLSE Index Futures. In 1996, Malaysian Monetary Exchange (MME) was set up to facilitate the trading of three months KLIBOR futures contract and Crude Palm Oil (CPO) Futures. In 1998, KLCE combined with MME and changed its name to Commodity and Monetary Exchange of Malaysia (COMMEX). Next in 1999, the combination of two exchanges, KLOFFE and COMMEX to become Malaysia Derivatives Exchange (MDEX). MDEX trades four derivatives on that time, which is crude palm oil futures contract, KLSE Composite Index futures contract, KLIBOR futures contract and the KLSE composite options contract. In 2004, MDEX is known as Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Berhad until now. The exchange provide for trading of derivatives market. Derivatives market can be divided into two, which is exchange traded derivatives and over the counter. Exchange traded transactions are standardised contracts while over the counter transactions is more complex and be adapted to meet counterparties requirements. The most common types of derivatives market are interest rate swaps, options, futures and forward rate agreement. A forward rate agreement is a contract between two parties that determine the currency of exchange rate or the rate of interest, to be paid or received on a specific date beginning at a future start date. Futures contract is exactly the same as forward contract with one exception. With a forward con tract, the buyer and seller realize gains or losses only on the settlement date. With a future contract, gains or losses are realized daily. Options contract is an agreement that gives the owner right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell (depending on the option type) some asset at a specific price for a specified time. Options can be divided into two, call options and puts option. Call option is gives the buyer (holder) the right to but (not obligation) an underlying asset. Puts option is give the buyer the right to sell an asset and they can decide whether it is profitable to sell the underlying asset accordingly. Last but not least for the type of derivatives market is interest rate swaps. Interest rate swap is an agreement between two parties that agree to exchange of interest rate cash flows. Interest rate swap is commonly used for hedging and speculating. 2.0 STRUCTURE OF THE DERIVATIVES MARKET The structures that involve in derivatives market can be divided into four types, interest rate swaps, options, futures and forward rate agreement. The most common types used in Malaysia are options contract and futures contract. As we know futures contract is an agreement between a buyer and a seller to exchange a specified amount of cash for a specific asset at a future date. Futures contract is also a forward contract with the feature that gains and losses are realized each day rather than only on the settlement date. The differences of future contract and forward contract are that futures contract traded on exchange (the Malaysia Derivatives Exchange) with standardized agreement. The contract of futures contract was negotiated on a futures exchange which act as the intermediaries between two parties. The parties that agree to buy the underlying asset in the future contract, (the buyer) is said to be long while the party that agree to sell the underlying asset in future ( the seller) is said to be short The aim of the future contract is to minimize the risk default by the party. The types of futures contract available can be divided into two groups, commodity futures and financial futures. With a financial future, the underlying goods are financial assets such as stocks, bonds, or currencies. With a commodity future, the underlying goods can be just about anything other than a financial asset. There are commodity futures contracts on a wide variety of agriculture products. Wherever there is price volatility, there may be a demand for a futures contract and new futures contracts are introduced on a fairly regular basis. In contrast, options contract is an agreement that gives the owner the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell some asset at a specified price for a specified time. Options can be divided into two, puts and calls. The owner of call option has the right but not the obligation, to buy an underlying asset at a fixed price, called the strike price or exercise price, for a specified time. The owner of a put option has the right but not the obligation, to sell an underlying asset at a fixed price for a specified time. The act of buying or selling the underlying asset using the option contract is called exercising the option. Some options can be exercised anytime up to and including the expiration date, other options can be exercised only on the expiration date. Because the buyer of a call option has the right to buy the underlying asset by paying the strike price, the seller of a call option is obligated to deliver the asset and accept the strike price if the option is exercised. Similarly, the buyer of the put option has the right to sell underlying asset and receive the strike price. In this case, the seller of the put option must accept the asset and pay the strike price. 3.0 THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DERIVATIVE MARKET This market is introduced in intermediaries because to help people in order to protect the value against risk of price of asset owned going in an unfavourable direction. This market can transfer of risk from the people who are not willing to take it as hedgers to the other people who are has their intention to assume it as a speculators. From this change, there are the advantages of derivative market. 3.1 ADVANTAGES The first advantage of derivative market is enable price discovery. Derivatives market has encourage large number of people with objectives of hedging, speculation, arbitrage to take part in the market and it will increase the competition. So, the large number of people are keep track of prices and trade for a little reason. The individual with more information and better judgement are inclined to participate in the market to take advantage of such situation. When the price is change in small value, it will attract some action on the part of speculators. Active participation in the market in large number of both buyers and sellers will ensures a fair price. So, the increased number of participants will make more trades, more volumes and sensitivity to smallest of price changes facilities correct as well as efficient price discovery of assets. The second advantage of derivative market is provide leveraging. In order to take position in derivatives, the buyers require very small i nitial outlay of capital so that they can take a position in the spot market. For example, Malik is a buyer and he want involve in derivative market. He believes that the price of rice shall be at price RM30/kg in 2 month from now and that a farmer has agreed to sell it at RM28/kg. So, Malik should take this advantage to buy at full amount RM28/kg today and he will realise RM30/kg in 3 months later. However, there are the other ways that the buyer should not pay at full payment. To make this happen, they should enter into such contract. Derivatives provide those exit routes by letting one enter into a contract and can neutralize their position by booking opposite position on a future date. The third advantage is facilities transfer of risk. When we involve in derivative market, we are a way from the risk because derivative instruments do not involve risk. Instead, derivative instrument redistribute risk between the various market participants. In other word, derivative can be com pared with insurance where it provide facilities that cover against over the unfavourable market movements in return for a premium and provides opportunities to those who are willing to take risks and make profits in the process. The fourth advantages of derivative market are lower transaction costs. This is because the number of participants that involve in the market that make this happen. In the derivative market, the high number of participants that take part in the market make the cost become low. The fifth advantage of derivatives market is the market is efficient. This market is said to be efficient or in other word is to be complete market when the available instruments can by itself or jointly cover against something in possible adverse outcomes. However, it is theoretical concept which is not seen in practice. But, there is greater degree of market completeness even with the presence of derivatives market. 3.2 DISADVANTAGES However, there are disadvantages of derivative market. The first disadvantage is increased need of regulation. The large number of participants that involve in derivatives market. From this involvement, there are exist speculative positions. So, it is necessary to stop these activities which speculative to prevent people from getting bankrupt. Besides that, it also to stop the chain of defaults. The second disadvantage is raises volatility. This is because there will be many speculator when there are the large number of market participants that take part in derivative market. This is due when there involve with small initial capital due to leveraging derivatives provide. When this happen, it will leads to speculation and raises volatility in the market when they are speculate the raise and down of the price in the market. The third disadvantage of derivative market is higher number of bankruptcies. This is happen due to leveraged nature of derivatives. Participants assume pos itions so that they will buy in large amount. But, some people make a buying which do not match with their financial capabilities. As a result, it eventually leads the participants to bankruptcies. 4.0 OVERVIEW OF DERIVATIVE MARKET IN MALAYSIA Derivatives are a form of security where it is derived from one or more underlying asset. Derivative is a contract between two or more parties. Its value is determined by fluctuations in the underlying asset. The most common underlying assets include stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, interest rates and indices. Derivatives are financial instruments that are widely used to manage a participants exposure to fluctuations in the financial markets. Derivative instruments can be traded on a formal exchange or market Counter (Over-The-Counter). Futures and options are the basic products are mostly traded derivatives in formal exchanges such as Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Berhad (BMD). On September 17, 2009, Bursa Malaysia Berhad entered into a strategic partnership with the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) in order to improve access to derivatives offerings globally. This includes licensing for FCPO settlement prices to position Malaysia as a global benchmark for commodity pri ces and global distribution for Bursa Malaysia through Globex electronic trading platform. CME currently holds 25 per cent equity interest in Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Berhad, while the remaining 75 percent interest held by Bursa Malaysia Berhad. Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Berhad (BMD) was established to meet the growing need for financial risk management in Malaysia. The main role of Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Berhad is to ensure market integrity and to ensure the orderly conduct of trading futures and options. Futures industry in Malaysia is governed by the Futures Industry Act 1993 FIA. FIA is a form of regulation for trading futures and options as well as the Capital Markets and Services Act 2007 (Capital Market Services Act CMSA). This regulation comes under the jurisdiction of the Securities Commission, which is authorized by the Ministry of Finance. The two organizations together responsibility for setting guidelines for the operation of Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Ber had. The Securities Commission also is the approving authority for all contracts traded in accordance with the provisions of the law and also for the licensing of participants in the market as a Futures Brokers Representative. All customers are required to place a deposit margin with Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Clearing Berhad, as a goodwill deposit before starting trading in the futures market. This deposit is known as initial margin. Typically, trading participants (Trading Participant) it is the futures broker will be a representative to collect deposits from customers and submit it to the Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Clearing Berhad.   The Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Clearing Berhad clears and manages counter party risks in relation to all contracts traded on Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Berhad. It is also regulated under the FIA 1993 and has its own business rules to govern the contractual relationship between itself with each of its Clearing Participants Below is the il lustration of the trading and clearing process: Description: Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Clearing Berhad (BMDC) will secure and manage the risk of all parties involved in a trade in respect of all contracts traded on Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Berhad. BMDC also require daily settlement for all transactions, thus providing tight control over margins due to price changing. 5.0 MAIN ISSUE ABOUT DERIVATIVES MARKET 5.1 FIRST ISSUE Saturday October 20, 2012 BURSA NET PROFIT DOWN SLIGHTLY IN Q3 ON WEAKER SECURITIES TRADING PETALING JAYA: Bursa Malaysia Bhds net profit fell 4.1% to RM37.03mil in the third quarter ended Sept 30 from RM38.62mil recorded in the previous corresponding quarter on weaker securities trading. Revenue dipped 1% to RM106.21mil from RM107.31mil with earnings per share declined to 7.0 sen compared with 7.3 sen previously. Chief executive officer Datuk Tajuddin Atan  said: In the prevailing market conditions, Bursa has attained a stable performance for the first nine months of the year with a marginal growth in PATAMI (profit after tax and minority interest), driven by growth in stable revenue, derivatives business and Islamic market, and coupled with lower operating expenses. For the nine months ended Sept 30, its earnings showed a 0.8% increase to RM115.75mil from RM114.82mil previously. Revenue declined to RM322.68mil from RM324.47mil. The softer performance was in line with the weak securities trading regionally but cushioned by successful initial public off erings (IPOs) in our market, Tajuddin said in a statement. The results came after its counterpart, the Singapore Exchange, announced that a decline in trading volume dragged down its net profit for the first quarter ended Sept 30. Net profit fell 15% to S$74mil on revenue of S$160mil. Tajuddin said the stock exchange operator was committed to maintaining the level of performance by undertaking various initiatives that would accomplish its business objectives and strategies, notwithstanding the market conditions. Meanwhile, trading revenue of the derivatives market rose to RM40.6mil from RM38.7mil, attributable to the improved performance of total traded volume that rose to 6.95 million contracts against 6.32 million contracts in the first nine months of 2011, driven by the increase in the trading volume of crude palm oil futures. On the Islamic market front, Bursa Suq Al-Sila (BSAS) recorded a 79% rise in its average daily trading value to RM2.06bil for the period under review from RM1.15bil previously. The spike was due to the increasing use of BSAS as a commodity  murabahah  trading platform. Summary of the news From the article above about the issue of derivatives market, we can conclude that the bursa saham suffered a declining net profit by 4.1% because of the weak security trading. The earning per share dropped from 7.3 cent to 7.0 cent. Meanwhile the derivatives market is rise up from RM38.7mil to RM40.6mil. this is because the increase of trading volume of the crude palm oil futures. 5.2 SECOND ISSUE Bursa Malaysia Derivatives wins award Published: 2012/09/19 Bursa Malaysia Derivatives (BMD) won the Best Technology Innovation by an Asian Exchange award and emerged runner-up  in the Asian Derivatives Exchange of the Year award category at the Futures Options World Award ceremony held in Singapore yesterday. Factors that contributed to the recognition included, easy accessibility and global connectivity of the Malaysian derivatives market, a statement by Bursa Malaysia Bhd today said. BMD had implemented several technological enhancements over the last two years, including migration to the Chicago Mercantile Exchanges GLOBEX Trading Platform, and hosting an Order Management System to move domestic futures brokers to a CME-certified broker front-end system. It also launched a new Derivatives Clearing System with multiple functionalities and capabilities with a SPAN risk-based margining system .  As part of its market development drive, Options on the FKLI was re-launched an d a new product, Options on Crude Palm Oil futures contract (OCPO) was subsequently launched in July 2012. Derivatives is becoming well accepted as a tradable and hedging product that create opportunities and we see huge potential in this market. The partnership with the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) Group has indeed assisted our growth story. This award recognition, clearly validates the economic path that Malaysia has taken to globalise the derivatives market, the Chief Executive Officer of Bursa Malaysia and BMD Chairman, Datuk Tajuddin Atan said. Tajuddin said the strong support from the Ministry of Finance, Securities Commission, Bank Negara Malaysia and Trading Participants have been key to transitioning Malaysia into a regional and global marketplace. Bernama Summary of the news The article conclude that Bursa Malaysia Derivatives (BMD) won awards for the achievements in the year 2012. Factors that contributed to the recognition included, easy accessibility and global connectivity of the Malaysian derivatives market. BMD also had implemented several technological enhancements over the last two years, including migration to the Chicago Mercantile Exchanges GLOBEX Trading Platform, and hosting an Order Management System to move domestic futures brokers to a CME-certified broker front-end system.  It also launched a new Derivatives Clearing System with multiple functionalities and capabilities with a SPAN risk-based margining system. CEO of Bursa Malaysia and BMD chairman, Datuk Tajuddin Atan stated that the award has taken Malaysia to the globe of the derivatives market. 6.0 CONTRIBUTION TO MALAYSIA ECONOMY Economy of a certain country depends basically form the demand and supply. Derivatives market in Malaysia is largely being used in the economy in the world including Malaysia. The markets have many importance towards the economy stabilization and growth. The derivatives market introduced because to help people value against risk of price owned going to unfavourable direction and this means that this will make it secure of people in Malaysia to use the derivatives market as the financial instrument. This will lead to the growth of the economy in Malaysia. The derivatives market play a vital role both financial and non-financial institutions. In Malaysia the increasing of volume of trading derivatives market is the crude palm oil. Over the past nine months the increasing of the volume of crude palm oil make the total traded in the market is the highest. It is also true that growth of derivatives market reveal the increasing market demand for risk managing instrument in the econ omy. But the major concern is the main components of OTC derivatives are interest rates and currency swaps. Then economy basically will suffer if the derivatives is misused and if a major takes place in derivatives market. The derivatives markets provide facilities for investors who require innovative investment tools and flexible to take advantage of the opportunities of the global market, this will lead to increase number of investors in Malaysia. Offering appropriate above-average returns to investors and portfolio protection, and offers facilities for hedging activities that can produce efficient financing for the investment portfolio will make a big contribution towards the growth of economy in Malaysia. Derivatives Market never failed to contribute to the growth of Malaysia economy because it is nowadays the most growing market in Malaysia. 7.0 CHALLENGES IN THE DERIVATIVES MARKET Derivatives give an impact on the financial economy as well as the real economy in the country. It is because there is much risk in this market. The price and rate volatility have increased in recent decades. This can cause for concern for a particular firm depends on the nature of the firms operations and its financing. The price fluctuations have greatest impact on the value of the firm. Sometimes it will be obvious, but sometimes they will not be. The derivatives may result in large losses to the investors because of the use of leverage or borrowing. The investors assume positions which do not match their financial capabilities and they could lose large amounts if the price of the underlying moves against them significantly. It will curtail real economic activity, which can cause a recession. It exposes investor to counter party risk in a financial transaction. Investment losses can occur if the investors lack of research and sound investment because they are not prepared well. The risk transfer factor needs to be applied in a targeted way in order to ensure that the investor does not take unnecessary risks, especially in swaps derivatives. Different types of derivatives have different levels of counter party risk. The derivatives give the challenge to those who are not familiar with speculative markets. It trade directly and only on uncertainty. It becomes relevant for volatility in the financial markets and is not in direct correlation with the fundamental value of the assets that are being traded in the derivatives market. An investor who cannot adapt with uncertainty in investment will tend to take different type of investment structure. Some derivative contracts involve foreign currency that is associated with transactions in the underlying item. The firm must exchange foreign currency for domestic currency to realize the domestic value of its foreign-denominated in a foreign currency. They face a risk of changes in the exchange rate betwe en the foreign and domestic currency as they negotiate contracts with set prices and delivery dates in the face of a volatile foreign exchange market with exchange rates constantly fluctuating. The time decay of an options contract can affect the investors because they have to pay a fee for the trade for which is never transacted. But it also can affect the buyer where he will lose that fee which secured the option to buy if he chooses not to complete the transaction. So the challenges that happened in the derivatives market in some ways weakens the basis of asset price. Financial stability as observed with the role of derivatives is effectively based on price changes as derivatives have little relation to the principal asset prices and only work on the price changes for these assets. 8.0 CONCLUSION The derivatives market gives benefits to the investors and the overall economy of a country. They can create a new business, and any employment opportunities from the profit they gained from the derivatives market. A derivative products value depends upon and is derived from an underlying instrument, such as commodity prices, exchange rates, interest rates, indices and share prices. It instruments can be traded in an organized exchange or over-the-counter (OTC). The exchange traded transactions are standardized contracts whereas the over the counter transactions are tailored to investors requirements. The derivative gives benefits such as (i) Provide facilities to investors who need an investment tool that is innovative and flexible and can take the opportunities of global markets; (ii) Offers above-average returns and portfolio protection to investors, and (iii) Offer facilities for hedging activities that can produce an efficient financing for the investment portfolio. T he derivatives market contains the instruments that are very complex such as futures, and options contracts. The investors need to have a good knowledge and understanding in order to success in trading futures and options. It is because the derivatives work on price changes, or volatility of the asset prices. This market transfer risks from one party to another party.

Friday, December 20, 2019

Essay on Mary Shelleys Frankenstein - 540 Words

In the novel Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley, the antagonist and protagonist changes throughout the course of the plot. In the earlier part of the novel nature is the protagonist and man is the antagonist, but as the plot progresses nature is forced to protect herself by becoming the antagonist and making man the protagonist. By the end of the novel both of the examples of man and natureamp;#8217;s antagonist characteristics lead to their inevitable destruction. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In the beginning of the novel, Victor or man, is the antagonist and nature is the protagonist. Victoramp;#8217;s overwhelming hubris makes him strive to achieve his goal by any means necessary. Victor becomes so blinded by his passion for his goal†¦show more content†¦The best example of the monsters turning into the antagonist is after he saves a mans daughter and the man shoots and him. The monster, after this even says that this was the last time he did anything good. Mans cruel attitude towards the monster was not the only cause of his turning to antagonist, Victoramp;#8217;s attitude as well was a major contributor. Nature is forced to protect herself (or the monster) and man (or Victor) takes the heat making nature the antagonist and man the protagonist. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Towards the end of the novel, the presence of a defined protagonist and antagonist becomes unclear. Victor becomes obsessed with killing the monster, and the monster becomes obsessed with putting Victor through torture. Both of these flaws of hubris lead to both downfalls. Victor ends up dying trying to kill the monster, and the monster killsamp;#8217; himself seeing that Victor is dead. Both the monster and the Victor could be called the antagonist at the end of the novel because both with to harm each other. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In the novel Frankenstein, the role of antagonist and protagonist often changes throughout the course of the plot. At the beginning of the novel, Victoramp;#8217;s hubris causes him to be the antagonist, making nature, or the monster, the protagonist. Nature is forced to protect herself because man cannot augment nature without destroying the very thingShow MoreRelatedMary Shelleys Frankenstein1689 Words   |  7 PagesGreat Expectations Fathers and Son, Frankenstein. The novel I have chosen to discuss is Frankenstein. Written in 1818 by Mary Shelley, Frankenstein is classified as a gothic novel, however, Shelly uses both realist and non-realist techniques. I will be looking at her reasons for writing the novel and what influenced her, as well as the realist and non-realist techniques used. I will be looking at some of the contemporary social issues that affected Shelley’s life at the time she wrote her novelRead MoreMary Shelleys Frankenstein1179 Words   |  5 Pagesbecome determined to perfect at what they do. 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Shelley uses the second person narrativeRead MoreEvil in Mary Shelleys Frankenstein1462 Words   |  6 PagesMary Shelleys Frankenstein is very much a commentary on the Enlightenment and its failure to tame the human condition through reason. The human condition can be defined as the unique features which mold a human being. The creature is undoubtedly a victim of this predicament. He grapples with the meaning of life, the search for gratification, the sense of curiosity, the inevitability of isolation, and the awareness of the inesca pability of death. These qualities and his ceaseless stalking of hisRead MoreEssay on Mary Shelleys Frankenstein1643 Words   |  7 PagesMary Shelleys Frankenstein In 1818 a novel was written that tingled people’s minds and thrilled literary critics alike. Frankenstein was an instant success and sold more copies than any book had before. The immediate success of the book can be attributed to the spine-tingling horror of the plot, and the strong embedded ethical message. Although her name did not come originally attached to the text, Mary Shelley had written a masterpiece that would live on for centuries. Read MoreMary Shelleys Frankenstein Essay1086 Words   |  5 Pages Mary Shelley wrote the book Frankenstein sometime in the 1810s. She was born in London in 1797 (Biography). Her mother was an author of prime literary stock who was trying to encourage women to pursue their ideas and strive to earn the status as equals. The Scientific and Industrial Revolutions that were taking place around Mary Shelley certainly influenced her while she was writing the book. The creation of machines and experiments at the time made people wonder what the limit of human technologyRead MoreMary Shelleys Frankenstein Essay846 Words   |  4 Pages Shelley’s Frankenstein does an excellent job at demonstrating the ideas and accomplishments of the enlightenment period. Shelly expresses these ideas and thoughts through the character of Victor Frankenstein who is an aspiring scientist seeking an intellectual challenge. Victor Frankenstein live s his hometown of Geneva and leaves in quest of a valued education in Ingolstadt. When Victor arrives at college he is lonely and finds himself in a new world in which he lives by himself. He than meets

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

The Laws Of Hammerabi Essay Research Paper free essay sample

The Laws Of Hammerabi Essay, Research Paper The Laws of Hammurabi The best method of happening out about a certain civilization is to look at their Torahs and other tribunal records. The Laws of Hammurabi are the best preserved legal papers reflecting the societal construction of Babylon during Hammurabi? s regulation. They address the rights of the hapless to seek compensation from wrongs committed by the wealthy or by the aristocracy. The Torahs besides discussed the rights of adult females, such as the right to have belongings in their ain names and to disassociate their hubby. Through these Torahs, the Mesopotamian people, or their swayers at least, seem to have been a really rigorous civilisation. This is evident in Torahs 22 and 23, refering larceny and robbery. Any adult male caught perpetrating robbery will be put to decease. Based on today? s society and Torahs, that seems really rough, but it shows that the Mesopotamian people were really austere with the felons. We will write a custom essay sample on The Laws Of Hammerabi Essay Research Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The following jurisprudence says that if a robbery has bee n committed but the robber has non be caught, ? the metropolis and the governor # 8230 ; shall do good to him his doomed property. ? This just and merely jurisprudence would neer go on in today? s society. The authorities does non reimburse people for stolen points, with the exclusion of insurance money. The Laws of Hammurabi besides show that the Mesopotamian people were really household oriented. Law 195 provinces that any boy who strikes his male parent will lose his manus. Although this is a really rough jurisprudence, it shows that the society had regard for their seniors. If that regard was non at that place, they were badly punished. Laws 209-212 besides discuss household issues, particularly girls and their foetuss. Anyone who killed a foetus was required to pay a certain sum, and, if the pregnant adult female dies, his girl would be killed besides. The penalty was lessened for a common man? s girl and kid, but it was still rigorous. These Torahs show that the people were really concerned with their kids and household.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Conflict and Flexible Organizational Behavior

Question: Discuss about the Conflict and Flexible Organizational Behavior. Answer: Introduction: The Maslows hierarchy addresses all the individuals with diverse needs (Lester 2013). Each group of employees belong to the different levels of the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs- The first group of single and young employees who wish to increase their income for the purpose of purchasing their first house and first car belongs to the esteem needs. This is because this group of people prefers to maintain their prestige in the society. The second groups of employees who are middle aged working parents belong to the category of belongings and love needs where they expect to gain love from their young children. They want to create a sense of belonging, trust and intimacy with their children. The third group of employees who wish to raise high in the corporate ladder belongs to the esteem needs as they want to have a feeling of accomplishment in their professional life. They want promotion and professional appreciation so that their colleagues treat them with dignity and respect. The fourth groups of employees who are old aged employees belong to the category of Self actualization needs as the employees have realized that they have achieved their personal potential, personal growth and have reached their peak experiences. They have reached the status of the self-fulfillment in their professional life. Based on your answer in part (a) above, suggest what can be offered by ABC Sdn Bhd to these different groups of employees so that their needs are fulfilled. Explain your suggestion. The company should take initiatives to take care of the different individuals who belong to different levels in the Maslow hierarchy of needs. The first group of employees should be given respect and dignity in the workplace and their performance appraisal should be done on a regular basis. If they are found suitable as per the organizational policies, then necessary increments should be done. The second group of the employees should be given flexible work options so that they can balance their personal as well as professional lives (Allen et al. 2013). The third group of employees should be given dignity and appreciation for their hard work so that they can climb the corporate ladder in the shortest possible time by fulfilling all the organizational criteria (Hicks and Waddock 2016). The organization should strive to improve inter personal relationships in the organization. The fourth group of employees are the old age employees who must be given something extra than their regular c ompensation. They should be given health related benefits and regular medical checkup for ensuring that they maintain optimum health (Ganster and Rosen 2013). An option for providing after retirement benefits should be encouraged in the organization which would make the future of the employees secure. If there is fulfillment of these factors, then the individuals would be motivated to work more and hence there would be an increase in the organizational productivity. References Allen, T.D., Johnson, R.C., Kiburz, K.M. and Shockley, K.M., 2013. Workfamily conflict and flexible work arrangements: Deconstructing flexibility.Personnel Psychology,66(2), pp.345-376. Ganster, D.C. and Rosen, C.C., 2013. Work stress and employee health A multidisciplinary review.Journal of Management, p.0149206313475815. Hicks, D. and Waddock, S., 2016. Dignity, Wisdom, and Tomorrow's Ethical Business Leader.Business and Society Review,121(3), pp.447-462. Lester, D., 2013. Measuring Maslow's hierarchy of needs.Psychological reports,113(1).