Monday, September 30, 2019
Overeating is a major societal job. Throughout the history, perceptual experience of gluttony has been altering with clip owing to the altering societal, political, and economic state of affairss. Overeating is an eating upset which is centrally characterized by dependence to nutrient that leads to gorge eating. Persons who suffer from compulsive eating upset suffer from episodes of uncontrolled feeding. It has been shown to hold psychological connexion as these persons tend to see pressured and manic feeling. As a consequence, the persons continue eating even after they become uncomfortably full. Binge eating tends to be followed by intense guilt and sometimes depression. While bulimics will purge themselves with purging or usage of laxatives, persons enduring from compulsive eating upset seldom puke or usage laxatives and hence they continue to roll up weight. Overeating has been recognized as one of the factors lending to increased incidences of corpulence and fleshiness which are major public wellness concerns. Overeating is a societal job which means that the job has taken different dimensions throughout history. It has been defined and understood in different ways depending on the altering political, societal, and economic conditions. Even during the mediaeval period, gorging was recognized but it was non understood the same manner it is understood today. This implies that understanding of the job has been altering with clip and though it was recognized as a mark of health in the yesteryear, it is considered a major wellness job today. Gorging today affects people across the societal demographic divide. The job is today compounded by societal values and wellness concerns. The authorities has put in topographic point different plans with an purpose of extenuating the consequence of the job but small has been achieved. Despite the current apprehension of gorging as a societal and wellness job, and the plans that have been instituted to extenuate its effects, it still remains a major societa l and wellness concerns in the universe today. Historical Background of Gorging Overeating is a societal job that has changed over clip. Since the mediaeval period, gorging has been understood in different ways depending on the altering economic, societal, and political environments. The job has besides been understood in different ways depending on the dominant societal values and the altering doctrine of societal public assistance ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . Definition and apprehension of the job have transformed with alterations taking topographic point in the environment. The current definition and apprehension of the job is really different from how it was understood during the mediaeval period. In order to specify and understand gluttony, it is of import to first expression at the historical definition and apprehension of the job. Historical apprehension of orgy eating day of the months back to the mediaeval period. At a clip when the society was extremely stratified, orgy feeding was understood as a mark of surpluss ( Tanofsky-Kraff, 2008 ) . It was chiefly practiced by those who had surplus to eat, chiefly those in the upper category. This means that the apprehension of gorging during that clip was chiefly engraved in indulgence since these were merely those who could afford plentifulness of nutrient who ate more. Interestingly, gorging was non recognized as a wellness job during the in-between ages. Historical histories have revealed that the ancient Greece and Arabia had texts which showed description of binging and purging which means both were recognized at that clip. Besides in ancient Rome, historiographers have shown the being of constructed Ã¢â¬Ëvomitoriums Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬â topographic points where persons or feasters threw up nutrient. This is a mark of being of gorging even at those ancient times . It has recorded that Roman Emperor Claudis who ruled between 10 B.C. to A.D. 54 and Vitellius who ruled between A.D 15 to A.D. 19 were both bulimic. These historical histories affirm to the fact that eating upsets were recognized every bit early as 10 B.C. Although it was non recognized, gorging was the chief cause of fleshiness in ancient times. Obesity, which consequences from gorging, is an antique job whose perceptual experience has changed over clip. During ancient civilisation, fleshiness was perceived in much different ways merely like other gorging upsets. For illustration, antediluvian Egyptians considered fleshiness as disease. There have been wall drawing in Egypt which depicted fleshiness as an unwellnesss. There was besides the celebrated figurine of Venus statuettes, which depicted the image of an corpulent female trunk and which are presumed to hold played major functions in transporting out rites. Ancient Chinese besides showed that they understood the job of fleshiness and its consequence on the length of service of the job. The Aztecs steadfastly believed that fleshiness could be considered as a occult job which was affliction of Gods. Hippocrates, who is regarded as the male parent of medical specialty, recognized th at there were many sudden deceases which could be attributed to fleshiness, and this was expressed clearly in his Hagiographas. However, this perceptual experience changed from topographic point to topographic point. In countries where nutrient was scarce, gorging and eventful fleshiness were considered as marks and symbols of wealth and a higher societal position. In some African civilizations, brides were plumped up in order to fix them for kid bearing period. Before a nuptials, a bride was plumped up until she reached the expected weight to help her to bear a kid. This shows that gorging and fleshiness were perceived in different ways. However, serious focal point on the prevalence of eating upsets did non take topographic point until the 19th and twentieth century. At the clip, there was great scientific progress which provided for research model to transport out surveies to understand the being of these diseases. For illustration, it was in 1979 that a British head-shrinker, Gerald Russell, made official description of being of binge-eating syndrome. He is the 1 who gave it its current scientific name, binge-eating syndrome nervosa. He had carried out a scientific survey between 1972 and 1978 ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . What sets apart the description of Russell from those of ancient Greece and Arabia is that Russell identified that binge-eating syndrome was carried out in order to cut weight, while the ancient surveies did non place the ground for being of binging and binge-eating syndrome. Throughout history, gluttony has been perceived in different ways. This perceptual experience has changed greatly with altering times, particularly in the class of 1900 Ã¢â¬Ës. For illustration, Gallic interior decorator Paul Poiret showed that gorging and eventful fleshiness were unstylish. Poiret designed skin-revealing adult females apparels in order to uncover the organic structure image. In the class of the nineteenth century, the rate of fleshiness continued to increase at an dismaying rate as a consequence of different factors, among them change in feeding forms, particularly gorging and altering life style. Despite the historical records of being of orgy feeding, it had non been recognized as a wellness job until 1959. In 1959 head-shrinker and research worker Albert Stunkard foremost described gorging or orgy feeding as a societal job ( Cooper and Fairburn, 2003 ) . He foremost described it as Ã¢â¬ËNight Eating Syndrome Ã¢â¬Ë and later the term Binge Eating Disorder was used to depict gorging behavior that did non hold nocturnal constituent. This meant that the job was recognized as a societal job merely in twentieth century despite its being for many old ages. Although the job has been observed for a figure of old ages, there has non been any scientific survey that looked into the tendencies of gorging. At the clip Stunkard described the job, he had observed at that place was increasing figure of people who were going overweight. He noted that fleshy persons had more incidents of gorging compared to the remainder of the population ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . The clinical observation convinced Stunkard that gorging was someway related to fleshiness and lone persons with fleshiness showed perennial episodes of gorging. With addition in the figure of corpulent persons owing to the altering life style, it was easy for Stunkard to associate the prevalence form and the hazard it posed to the general population. Since so, there have been several surveies that have looked into the job in greater inside informations. From the perceptual experience of a mark of surpluss during ancient times, orgy feeding was now recognized as a wellness issues ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Since Stunkard recognized the job in fleshy persons, it was non recognized by the medical governments in the state despite a figure of attendant surveies that have outlined the effects of the job. It was non until 1994 when Binge Eating Disorder ( BED ) was introduced in the DSM-IV standards. However it was introduced as a proviso psychiatric upset that required further research. It is of import to understand that during 1950s when the job was recognized as a major societal job, there were a batch of alterations that were taking topographic point in the societal, political, and economical environment. This period marked the terminal of the Second World War and the universe was pulling the attending off from war and political spat to concentrate on societal and wellness public assistance of the population. The terminal of the Second World War ushered the universe into a new epoch that was more focussed on societal public assistance of the people. Since the bend of the century, the universe has been much occupied with First and Second World War and the Great Depression that have wiped away wealth and people scrambled for nutrient rations. This means during the period after the terminal of the Second World War, people could entree more nutrient. Change in engineering has been recognized as another factor that contributed to increased incidence of gorging ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . The altering nature of life, chiefly driven by engineering, led to nutrient procedure engineerings that made nutrient available outside the kitchen. Traditionally, nutrient was merely found and prepared in the kitchen which meant that people had limited opportunities of feeding. However, the debut of modern nutrient processing engineering, particularly with the outgrowth of fast and convenient nutrient, people have more opportunities of feeding and this factor contributed to incidence of gorging. With handiness of nutrient in different public infinites, and with outgrowth of nutrient ironss like MacDonald Ã¢â¬Ës, which have been established in about every corner, people are encouraged to eat more frequently ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . The increased incidence of gorging led to lifting instances of fleshiness and this was one of the factors that drew attending to the issue of gorging. Changes in societal life, particularly in working conditions, were another factor that contributed to the increased instances of gorging. Unlike times when people labored for hours in the field, the outgrowth of office occupations where manual occupations are left to machines encourages people to eat more ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . As the figure of working hours reduced and more work was taken over by machines, people had more clip to loosen up and eat. Even at work, the outgrowth of fast nutrient meant that people could transport nutrient to work and continued to eat while working. There were a figure of alterations at place that besides marked increased instances of gorging. The outgrowth of telecasting sets and other amusement devices stationed at place meant that people spent more hours watching Television while eating. At the terminal, they ate more than they would hold eaten if they were non watching Television ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Apart from positive impacts of technological promotion and wealth creative activity like holding TVs at place, there are other psychological alterations that come with alteration in life that have been pointed out as possible causes of gorging. As people became busy and pre-occupied and the economic system changed, the degree of emphasis kept on lifting ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . High degrees of emphasis and depression have besides been pointed out as possible grounds why people engaged in gorging. Research grounds has shown that compared to the yesteryear, economic crisis of modern clip, where life is centered on econ omic public presentation, has contributed to high degrees of emphasis. It is hence apparent that throughout history, definition and apprehension of gorging has dramatically changed in line with emerging societal, political, and economic tendencies. Earlier definition of gluttony is rather different from the modern 1. Binge feeding has changed from a mark of wealth in ancient times to a wellness job that is attributed to the alterations in the modern life style. While the gluttony and fleshiness have remained a job for the wealth in earlier times, most of the corpulent persons presents are found in the center and low category. Description of the gluttony in young persons and striplings Since the 1950s, gorging and attach toing corpulence and fleshiness complications have become major public wellness concerns in the United States. As has been the tradition with the United States authorities, it responds with policies aimed at extenuating the consequence of the job but seldom puts in topographic point policies to forestall the job. Since gorging was noted as a public wellness concern in 1950s, it took the authorities several old ages before any policy was put in topographic point to turn to the issue. With clip, gorging, coupled with altering life manner including reduced battle in physical exercisings has led to overweight and fleshiness, which are considered to be the major public wellness issues confronting the state ( Tanofsky-Kraff, 2008 ) . Binge eating upset is presently a major job that cuts across the whole population. Each and every twelvemonth, there are 1000000s of Americans who succumb to different endangering feeding upsets, but orgy feeding remains a m ajor job across the whole population. It is estimated that about 16 million Americans suffer from one or more eating upsets including anorexia nervosa and binge-eating syndrome nervosa ( Tanofsky-Kraff, 2008 ) . However, a higher figure, 25 million Americans, are documented to endure from orgy eating. Interestingly, the job is more marked in adult females than in work forces. Statisticss shows that more than 90 % of those who are affected by these jobs are adult females ( Hudons et al. , 2007 ) . Unlike other wellness jobs that have been known to happen with age, either really early or really tardily in life, eating upsets occur in the in-between life. It has been documented that approximately 86 % of persons who report eating upsets are somewhat below the age of 20, which means the job starts developing early in life. For illustration, research findings show that approximately 11 % of high school pupils have one or more eating upsets, with orgy eating being a major job ( Raderprogr ams, 2010 ) . However, research shows conflicting consequences. A figure of surveies have pointed out that the prevalence of orgy feeding is non clear in the population. This is because the prevalence differs from topographic point to put depending on the societal economic position. However, it has been shown that the prevalence of orgy feeding in the general population ranges between 1-3 % ( Bull, 2004 ) . As was earlier observed in 1950s, orgy feeding remains a major job confronting fleshy and corpulent persons. A figure of surveies have clearly shown that among the corpulence and corpulent persons, orgy eating Texas Rangers from 25 % and more ( Bull, 2004 ) . In striplings and young person, orgy feeding has been described as a major wellness concern. Surveies have shown that doomed of control feeding or BED is prevailing in immature people non merely in the United States but in the whole universe ( Tanofsky-Kraff, 2008 ) . Binge feeding is associated cross-sectionally with adiposeness in kids and young person and has been identified as a major factor predisposing them to overweight and fleshiness. Overeating is hence a major societal job non merely in grownups but in young persons. There are several grounds why the society is acquiring concerned with the job of gorging. Since the 2nd half of the twentieth century, increasing incidence of gluttony has attracted public attending owing to the societal and wellness branching on the general population. Overeating was recognized as a job associated with fleshiness. The ground why the society is going more concerned with increasing incidence of gorging can be related to the lifting instances of corpulence and fleshiness in the population. Obesity is an epidemic in the United States that affects people across the societal demographic divide. It is estimated that about three quarters or accurately more than 64 % of American grownups are overweight while 26 % are corpulent ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . The figure of corpulent people in the United States has grown steadily from 19.4 % in 1997 to the recent 26.6 % in 2007 ( Hudons et al. , 2007 ) . By 2015, it is estimated that approximately 75 % of the United States population will be overweight while 41 % will be corpulent ( Hudons et al. , 2007 ) .While fleshiness has been considered a job for the ripening persons, demographic prevalence portrays a distressing tendency as kids and striplings shows increasing instances of corpulence and fleshiness. In the last two decennaries, it has been observed that kids and young persons are going victims of complications associated with gluttony, with 15-25 % of American kids considered corpulent while the figure keeps on turning ( Tanofsky-Kraff, 2008 ) . Worrying tendencies show that one in every five kids is fleshy and has a higher likeliness of going corpulent. By any criterions, these statistics are worrying and name for action from the concerned stakeholders. The above statistics clearly reveals why gluttony is considered a major public wellness concern. What is more badgering is the observation that overweight and corpulent kids and teens are likely to go corpulent when they grow up to grownups. This means that there is likeliness of holding a coevals of corpulent grownups in the cause of clip if nil is done ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Although there are multiple beginnings which contributed to overweight and fleshiness, gorging has been singled out as the chief cause of fleshiness in kids and teens. A recent survey that was carried out by World Health Organization Collaboration Center for Obesity Prevention found out that while research workers have long faulted lessening in physical activity as the chief cause of fleshiness, addition in gorging should instead be pointed out as the chief cause of fleshiness. For kids, gorging instead than other intensifying factors is the chief cause of fleshiness ( RWJF, 2010 ) . If the above tend ency is anything to travel by, so gorging should be a major concern for all persons in the society and so, it is a call for the authorities to come up with steps to extenuate the effects of gorging in kids. There are many societal, economic, political, and media forces that have garnered to specify gorging as a major societal job. Socially, the perceptual experience of gluttony has been altering with clip and today it is no longer perceived as a mark of wealth and surpluss but instead as a societal job. Research has shown that kids who are overweigh and corpulent are likely to be bullied or face cynicism from their equals. They are perceived to be irresponsible, which means they suffer socially. This means that gorging is no longer accepted as a societal pattern as it leads to overweight and fleshiness ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . Economically, people are going good off and the life criterions have truly improved. However researches point out that gorging is non an economic job as it cuts across the divide, which means even kids and teens populating in low income countries are enduring from the job. This means that there are more implicit in economic factors, like the theoretical account of economic system that lays less accents on difficult work that increases Calorie ingestion which has conspired to worsen the job. Political forces that have lead to acknowledgment of the job include authorities policies that have defined the issue. In 1994, the authorities took a bold measure to include BED into the DSM-IV standards which means it was already recognized as a wellness job. Through the relevant organisations, the authorities has funded a figure of plans aimed at extenuating the job ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . However, the most instrumental force that has shaped gorging as a societal job is the media. Now and so, the media carries out runs that are aimed at maintaining kids out of gorging. The media has been critical of transnational corporations like McDonalds which have encouraged gluttony. On the other manus, media portraiture of desired organic structure size, particularly for adolescent misss, forces them to prosecute in weight loss plans that lead to emotion al orgy feeding. The public apprehension of gorging is coming to a convergence. As has been reviewed earlier, ancient apprehension of gorging was rather different from the modern apprehension. There were some societies that encouraged gorging in adult females to give them strength to bear kids while in some societies, gorging was perceived to come with wellness effects. Presents, with the increased apprehension of effect of gorging in mention to overweight and fleshiness, public definition of the corpulence portrays it as a major psychological job. Harmonizing to DSM-IV standards, orgy feeding is defined as a upset marked by eating larger than usual sum of nutrient in a short period of clip, most specific, within a period of two hours. It is lack of control on one Ã¢â¬Ës eating behaviour or eating that can non be controlled ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . In this definition, there are of import values and political orientations that have are put into consideration. Most of import, the definition p uts into consideration the wellness value in belief that while feeding is good ; it may come with eventful wellness effects. Concretely, gorging in young persons and stripling is understood as a psychological and behavioural job that comes with sedate effects particularly fleshy and fleshiness. However, gorging is still understood in different footings by different societal sections. For some parents, gorging in their kids may be a mark of growing in appetency ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Parents understand that throughout the life span, kids feeding behavior supports on altering and hence gorging in striplings corresponds to foods demands in their organic structure, which means they do non see it to be a job. However, for others, gorging is already recognized as a major wellness job and hence they are making their best to help their kids to get the better of it. Prevalence forms show that Binge Eating Disorder affects 1000000s of people in the United States, particularly young persons and striplings. However, the job is more marked in females than males. In the United States, the job affects 3.5 % females compared to 2 % males ( Decaluwe and Braet, 2003 ) . The job is besides more marked in persons who are fleshy and corpulent as more than 30 % of persons seeking weight decrease intervention have shown marks of BED ( Decaluwe and Braet, 2003 ) . The fact that orgy feeding is twice common in females than males shows that the job is non related to caloric demands as assumed by most parents. The most annihilating consequence of orgy feeding is that it leads to wellness complications like corpulence and fleshiness. Binge eating leads to increased adiposeness in kids and grownups which increases incidence of corpulence and fleshiness. Since the job cuts across the societal demographic divide, including affluent people and those from low income co untries, there are no societal unfairnesss which are associated with the job. By and large, it can be recognized as a job associated with addition in wealth, modern nutrient processing engineering, and alterations in different domains of life ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Social value and political political orientations have impacted otherwise on the manner the job is viewed. As societal value keeps on altering, so has the public perceptual experience of corpulence and fleshiness. For illustration, traditionally, people with large organic structures who can presently be categorized corpulent were valued and viewed every bit good up. However, this has changed with the altering media perceptual experience of ideal organic structure weight. If any, there are few persons in the society who want to keep large organic structures ( Decaluwe and Braet, 2003 ) . This means that if corpulence is being viewed negatively in the society, orgy feeding, which is a causative factor for corpulence and corpulent conditions are besides viewed negatively by the people. Politically, there has been less authorities concern on fleshiness and corpulence until late when the authorities took bold stairss in face of public menace posed by corpulence and fleshiness incidences t o establish steps to cover with the job, for illustration inclusion of gorging in DSM-IV ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . Overweight and fleshiness are tied to the political political orientation of capitalist economy which is specifying the modern society. In capitalist economy, persons amass more, and indulge in civilization of consumerism hence driving frontward the civilization of gorging ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . Gorging can be explained utilizing different societal theories. One of the recent theories that have been used to explicate gluttony is reversal theory which explains gorging as a response to high-tension emphasis ( Sue et al, 1998 ) . This theory has shown that adult females who engage in weight decrease plan suffer from tenseness and emphasis which forces them to prosecute in gorging. The same theoretical account has besides been expressed by psychosomatic theory which shows that emotional eating consequences from confusion and apprehensiveness related to emotional provinces that are in bend related to hunger and repletion ( Terry, 2005 ) . Another theory that explains gorging is addiction theory which suggest that when one habituates or adjusts a to nutrient cues, one is less likely to acquire satisfied and keeps on devouring nutrient ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . In line with this theory, societal acquisition theory besides shows that gorging is a erudite behaviour that is lea rned due to physical surrounding and interactions. Cognitive theories have pointed out that gorging is profoundly rooted in cognitive procedure which means it is a cognitively goaded procedure. This means that the encephalon is motivated to eat more and more with no feeling of repletion ( Terry, 2005 ) . In mention to the above theories, it can be deduced that there are biological, societal, and psychological causes of orgy feeding. In biological causes, it has been revealed that organic structure parts and endocrines like hypothalamus which control appetency may neglect to direct right message for hungriness and comprehensiveness and therefore lead to gorging. Psychological beginnings have shown that depression and orgy feeding are closely linked to each other. The U.S Department of Health and Human Services shows that more than half of orgy feeders are depressed or have suffered marks of depression in life ( Levi et al. , 2008 ) . On societal factors, it has been shown that societ al force per unit area adds shame on crack addict feeders but this lone fuels their emotional feeding ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Environmental factors like parental pattern of usage of nutrient to conform kids fuels binge eating. A causal concatenation that explains pathway to gorging may be constructed as follows:Ideology/Values-Social influence Ã¢â¬â desired organic structure size, equal influence -Economic influence Ã¢â¬â alteration in working spiels, convenient and fast nutrient, less physical work -Media influence Ã¢â¬â force per unit area on desired organic structure sizePositive influenceIncreased nutrient consumption due to positive influence like handiness of nutrient, eating while watching Television, and othersEmotional feedingTriggered by stress/depressionEffectssCorpulence Fleshiness Insomnia Relationship jobs Suicidal ideas Depression and anxiousness Gorging causes many wellness related physical, emotional, and societal jobs, including corpulence and fleshiness, emphasis, insomnia, self-destructive ideas, and many others. Depression, anxiousness, and sometimes substance maltreatment have been pointed out to be possible side effects of orgy feeding ( Munsch and Beglinger, 2005 ) . Binge eating besides comes with societal jobs like intervention relationship and calling. In footings of effects and benefits, gorging can be looked from two angles, from the point of position of those who benefit and those who suffer from the job. To get down with, there are much more people who suffer from the job than those who benefit from it. Those who suffer from the job include persons who are enduring the effects of such jobs like corpulence and fleshiness, close household and relates who are related to the person and besides suffer from the job, the authorities which has to incur one million millions of dollars in handling complications associated with the job, and many others ( Hudons et al. , 2007 ) . On the other manus, those who benefit from the job include concerns which deal with nutrient and others like pharmaceuticss which sell medical addendums to cover with complications of corpulence and fleshiness. Presently, there are many plans which are dedicated to extenuation of the job. It is of import to observe that most of these plans have taken the attack of supplying instruction to young persons and striplings on causes, effects, dangers, and ways to forestall gorging. While the authorities has instituted such policies as school eating policy that encourage healthy feeding, most of the plans are run by the private sector in concurrence with the authorities, most of them bing in their ain microenvironment. Some of these plans include Focus Adolescent Services, The Center- A Place of Hope, Eating Disorder Hope, and many others. These plans have used the most accessible information airing media, chiefly through the cyberspace to make as many young persons and striplings as possible.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Martin Luther King lived from 1929 to1968 in America, there was much discrimination against black people. Even though slavery had been abolished in 1869, most black people still lived in poverty. Black people earned half the amount white people earned and many could not vote. Martin Luther King was Black American Christian who believed that god made everyone equal. Because of his Christian beliefs he worked towards equal rights through non-violent protests; his beliefs being that there was never an excuse for violence as that doesn`t express the love of god Ã¢â¬â just hatred. King followed in his father and grandfathers footsteps by becoming a pastor in 1954 in a Baptist church in Montgomery. Following Rosas Parks protest through refusing to move from her seat on the bus to give it to a white person, he became involved in the civil rights movement. Mixing the Christian idea of perfect love (Agape) with St. Thomas Aquinas` philosophy that an unjust law in the eyes of God is immoral, and therefore, not a law. King said in his letter from Birmingham Jail that, Ã¢â¬Å"an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust and who willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the conscience of the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the highest respect for the law. Ã¢â¬ Furthermore his campaign of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience began to take shape. After Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to move from her seat to allow a white person to sit down, King decided it was time to start acting and after calling a meeting, where it was decided for all black people to stop using the buses. This was called a Ã¢â¬Ëbus boycottÃ¢â¬â¢. After 381 days with buses being virtually empty (costing the company lots of money), the government passed a law to state that it was illegal to segregate black people from white people on the buses. This was a victory for King and his beliefs in non-violent direct action. King believed that the Good Samaritan parable was a prime example of how we should treat each other equally. In the parable a Jew is beaten, mugged and left for dead. A priest, a Levite both cross to the other side of the road when the see him. However when a Samaritan sees him he helps him and pays for accommodation and care for him despite Jews and Samaritans despising each other. This parable showed you should love each other as neighbours despite religion or race. King demonstrated how you should stick up for your dreams, follow your beliefs and how violence isn`t needed to achieve your goal. His work made life in America better for everybody, his message to black and white people caused them to think and change the way things were being done.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Army Auxiliary Corps Take the women into the armed service, who then will do the cooking, the washing, the mending, the humble and homey tasks to which every woman has devoted herself? From the mouth of a man who was against women joining the Armed Forces of the United States during World Wars I (WWI) and II (WWII) (Monahan). In 1917, thousands of women served during World War I (WWI), constantly fighting a battle to become part of the United States Army, a battle they were not winning (Monahan).They were nursing, supporting and helping the military forces overseas, but they were not recognized. During that time period many Army Officers put formal requests into the War Department to allow the recruitment and enlistment of women, trying to create a bill to establish a WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC). Secretary of War, Newton D. Baker, disagreed with this suggestion of a bill and the requests to establish a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s service corps within the U. S. Army ( Monahan).After the war was over the push for a WAAC was forgotten, out of sight out of mind, until World War II. The basis of the WAAC was to allow women into the Army and to try to create an equal environment for men and women from which the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence says we are built upon. When WWII kicked off women were not considered part of the Army, but they were allowed to help with many different roles. This time period posed many opportunities for American women, both domestically as well as roles they could play in the war.A big issue that dominated womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives during this period was how to combine home-life with the new demands of the war economy in the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes. Women had made a few gains between WWI and WWII in the military in terms of the political influence; female workers were utilized for short-term gains during the war, with a long-term goal of seeing women return to the domestic sphere and reinforcing traditional gender roles (Crockrord).Women who chose to help the military in times of war had to obtain their own food and quarters, they had no legal protection or medical care and most importantly they were not entitled to any type of disability benefits or pensions the Veterans were entitled to (Holm). Congresswoman, Edith Nourse Rogers of Massachusetts was determined to change this, she introduced a bill on May 28, 1941, to establish a WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Army Auxiliary Corps, and the bill eventually succeeded because there was no hint of full status for women; which meant women would be ecognized as supporting the Army but they would still not be a part of the Army (Holm). She felt women and men should have the same benefits and should be treated equally. When the final bill for the WAAC was presented both sides had to compromise, the women and the menÃ¢â¬â¢s side serving in the military (Bellafaire). The bill passed, and the bill passing meant that women would be allowed to serve with the Army but they still would not receive the same pay or promotions and lot of the benefits that the men received. They did however receive food, uniforms, living quarters, minimal pay and medical care.There was also a lot of focus on preventing women from attaining high rank and on placing women in positions where they could give orders to men (Bellafaire). For example, although the duties of a WAAC first officer were comparable to those of a male captain, she received pay equivalent to that of a male first lieutenant (Bellafaire). Unfortunately, there were still many things that women had to overcome serving with the military. Men constantly criticized female soldiers, saying that they needed to be home with their family and community.They didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want a change and women in the military represented just that. The Office of Censorship ran a pole and discovered 84 percent of soldiersÃ¢â¬â¢ letters mentioning the WAAC were unfavorable (Bellafaire). They were questioning the moral values of women attracted to the military service and passed these beliefs to their families at home (Bellafaire). One of the biggest challenges that were faced with the WAAC was the rumors. Most of the rumors were started because they many were trying to force women back to Ã¢â¬Å"their domestic lifestylesÃ¢â¬ (Bellafaire).Many men started to say women of the WAAC were pregnant or were prostitutes; the women were often returned home based on the rumors and not factual evidence (Bellafaire). One story that was told was that any soldier seen dating a WAAC would be seized by Army authorities and provided with medical treatment (Bellafaire). Though there were many rumors about the WAAC and they were under serious scrutiny, Congress opened a hearing in March 1943 on the conversion of the WAAC into the Regular Army, hoping that it would help to mitigate the rumors and help the women become more of an integral part of the Army (Holm).Army leaders asked for the authority to convert the WAAC in to the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Army Corps, which would be part of the Army itself rather than merely serving with it (Holm). On July 3, 1943 the WAC was signed into law and all WAACÃ¢â¬â¢s were given the choice of joining the Army as a member of the WAC or returning to civilian life. Many decided to join, 25 percent decided to leave the service (Bellafaire). Women in the military have been an instrumental part of our history. The WAAC was the first step for them becoming part of the military.Looking at the bigger picture, whether women were a part of the WAAC, the WAC or just the plain old Army today there will always be a place for women. Even in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world women constantly have to fight for their roles and to prove themselves. The Declaration of Independents states, we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal (Jefferson), Ã¢â¬Å"menÃ¢â¬ is all people, including women. It is always a constant battle for equality, the WAAC was a positive step in tha t direction and it has only gotten better. Works CitedBellafaire, Judith. Ã¢â¬Å"The WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Army Corps: A Commemoration of World War II Service. Ã¢â¬ www. history. army. mil/brochures/WAC/WAC. htm. CHM Publication, 17 Feb. 2005. Web. 29 June 2012. Crockrord, Vanessa. Ã¢â¬Å"Oveta Culp Hobby and Her Ã¢â¬Å"LieutenantsÃ¢â¬ Transformational Leadership in Action in the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Army Auxiliary Corps of World War II. Ã¢â¬ Dissertation. 2003. Electronic. 29 June 2012. Holm, Jeanne. Women in the Military: An Unfinished Revolution. Novato: Presidio Press, 1982. Print. Monahan, Evelyn. A Few Good Women. New York: Random House, 2010. Print.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Brazilian Drought and Coffee Harvest - Essay Example This occurrence immediately became major news to the market economy and the consumers, because of the change that would occur in the marketing system. What actually occurred during this circumstance was a surge of heavy rains which lashed Brazil for several days, causing a major drought, and isolating hundreds of people and destroying crops. "Farmers reported that 40 percent of their tobacco, bean and corn crops had been destroyed by the floodwaters that inundated fields in the western half of the state." (Associated Press, 2000). The October 2000 drought was an incredibly serious and devastating event in many different ways for Brazil. In order to understand these reasons and to come to a clearer and more knowledgeable viewpoint on the subject matter, certain matters in regards to the drought itself, how it affected Brazil, and what plans are for the future must all be thoroughly discussed. The aim of this paper is to focus on all of these elements, while answering questions such as why, how, when, and will come in the future due to this situation. This is what will be dissertated in the following. Coffee is the second most commonly traded commodity in the world, trailing second only to petroleum. The first coffee plantation in the world was in fact established in Brazil in 1727, and Brazil cultivates coffee as a commercial commodity. They relied heavily on slave labor from Africa for its viability until abolition in 1888. For many decades in the 19th and 20th centuries, Brazil was the biggest producer and virtual monopolist in the coffee trade, and remained that way, until a policy of maintaining high prices soon opened opportunities to other growers, like Colombia, Guatemala and Indonesia. Brazil is located in East Central North America and occupies approximately 50% of the South American continent. Brazil is bound by Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana to the north, Colombia to the northwest, Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay to the west, Argentina to the southwest, Uruguay to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Brazil has a tropical and subtropical climate characterized by high temperatures and anywhere from moderate to heavy rainfall. Rainfall is usually evenly distributed throughout the year, and the nationwide average annual precipitation varies between 1,010 mm (40 inches) and 2,030 mm (80 inches). There is an interior of Brazil's northeastern region which is known as the 'Drought Polygon'. It is "an irregular shaped region where people live under recurring threat of severe drought." ("Brazil", n.d.). This drought polygon is the driest part of the country, and it encompasses roughly 10 percent of the entire country's territory. "In this region, rainfall is undependable and the evaporation rate is very high, making it difficult to raise crops." ("Land", n.d.). Brazil is the world's biggest producer of green coffee beans with an approximate market share of 30 percent. Depending highly on weather conditions, Brazil produces and exports about 30 million bags of coffee beans annually. Approximately 85% of Brazilian coffee exports are Arabica coffee, which is also considered to be one of the highest quality; even more so than Robusta coffee - which demands higher prices. Brazilian coffee is characterized by the diversity in tastes depending upon geographic regions of the coffee's origin. The United States and Germany are the world's largest
Thursday, September 26, 2019
IT Infrastructure - Research Paper Example reason behind this is because as a business, there are various problems that come with embracing the cloud, hence the needs to be aware of such problems. The requirements of an organization have to be identified when incorporating cloud technology. As Hosseini and Sriram indicate, cloud technologies have to be paired in line with certain needs of the business for there to be a successful path for cloud acceptance. To create an IT infrastructure which is successful in a start-up company, Banerjee indicates that it is crucial to understand the main aspects that make the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s IT successful and intelligent. An organization should have an IT infrastructure which is dependable, as this will assist it in yielding more applications that are dependable. The IT infrastructure should also be manageable, which means that it should respond automatically to failures of hardware without the presence of the CIO. It should also be adaptable, in that when there are new applications that are developed, it has to adapt to the environment which allows it to be deployed easily. Lastly, the infrastructure has to be affordable for an organization which is new in the market. Hence, the most crucial characteristic to consider in the case of a start up organization would be
Enterprise in practice - Essay Example These models can be used in practice in order to assess the viability of an opportunity under specific market conditions. The first of these models, the SWOT analysis, provides a detailed view of the internal and the external environment of the organization. SWOT analysis focuses on the identification and the evaluation of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (Earley et al. 2000). The two first elements of SWOT analysis, i.e. the strengths and weaknesses refer to the internal organizational environment; in opposition, opportunities and threats reflect the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s external environment (Adler et al. 2008). ... al conditions; moreover, secondary data describing the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s external environment would be also used (for instance, statistical data referring to the performance of the industry in which the organization operates or the trends of the particular industry regarding specific business decisions, e.g. mergers and acquisitions); it would be preferable that the information referring to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s external environment is relevant to the opportunity the viability of which has been set under examination; for example, if the development of a strategic alliance between a specific organization and a well known organization of its industry is planned, then the performance of similar strategic decisions within the particular industry would be examined; an alternative method for generating ideas, along with the use of SWOT analysis, would be the focus groups, which would offer the following advantage: through the open discussion on a series of important issues, ideas c ould be developed in regard to the opportunity under evaluation; b) furthermore, the ideas generating through the above process Ã¢â¬â or processes, in case that both the processes suggested above are used Ã¢â¬â should be carefully preserved, in order to be further processed; the use of a notebook would be useful ensuring that the ideas generating will be not in risk Ã¢â¬â referring to the potential loss of ideas if they are stored in a database/ PC accessed by third persons, c) at the next level, the PEST analysis (Political, Economic, Social and Technological factors) would be used in order to identify additional risks in the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s external environment; PEST analysis refers to different elements of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s external environment and for this reason it should be used along with SWOT
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Economics USA - Essay Example If markets are doing well in some part of the world it reflects in other parts of the world. Precisely if the market goes down it results in a ripple effect that brings down most of the markets in the world. It was believed that when a commodity was produced there would be demand for the product. But the whole scenario of the market changed upside down, markets crashing; unemployment was increasing, rise in inflation, prices were falling and eventually factories being closed. It was believed that markets correct themselves but it was proven wrong by the great depression. Maynard Keynes's theory hold good, according to his theory fall in investment spending might result in fall in consumption spending. US economy is the world's largest and powerful economy, a slight change in its markets would result in a ripple effect throughout the world markets. The US has proven itself as the land of opportunities for many people around the globe. Like many of the economies the US has seen the Booms and Busts of the markets that brought happiness in good times and sorrow in bad times. In 1920's the US went through the great depression and slowly and steadily markets stabilized and experts called this as the Business Cycle. In late 1990's due to the Bubble Burst the markets crashed and in consequent years it bounced back.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Risk management of petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia - Essay Example The top most leading players in this industry are the state owned company Saudi Aramco and the Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), their rankings are also at the global level are being one of the largest producers of petrochemical products (Cordesman and Obaid, 2004). The raw materials for producing these products had been available in abundance but now it is being observed that there is shortage being observed in the raw materials and therefore the Saudi petrochemical industry need to work upon their risk management aspects of this industry. Shortages of raw materials from which the products are being produced tend to give rise to high risks in the future therefore it is important to start managing the risk factors beforehand. Risk Management Risk management is usually defined as the elements that cause risk to the organization and accordingly assessments and prioritization of risks are conducted for the purpose of risk management. Risk management plans are made to reduce, m inimize, monitor, and evaluate the risks so that opportunities can be maximized. Risks can be faced from the financial markets uncertainty, from the failures of projects, from legal liabilities, from the factors of credit risk, and other such factors (British Standards Institute, 20). Risk Options There are many types of risk options that can be used for the purpose of managing risk in the organizations. They are as follows (British Standards Institute, 73): Developing new processes of business so that the level of risk can be controlled Risks should be reassessed on a periodic basis Transferring of risks to external organizations such as insurance companies The avoidance of risks by closing down the business units that cause risk Many of the other petrochemical industries operating in Saudi Arabia are planning on with the establishment of acrylic acid complex plants so that any type of downturn in the industry can be overcome in the future. This is due to the changes in the success level trends observed in the country that new business units need to be developed so that the future challenges that are present in the industry forecast can be overcome by the industry. Risk minimization in petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia The main aspects that should be carefully reviewed towards minimizing risk in the petrochemical industries of Saudi Arabia are (Athearn, Schmit, and Doerpringhaus, 80): 1. Management: All operations should be reviewed, maintenance and engineering operations should take place accordingly, check and control should be maintained for the fire safety and security features of the organization. 2. Procedures: all work operation operations should be carried out under the approved engineering standards so that while insurance premiums are opted for, no loopholes remain for them to gain benefits in times of risk. 3. Plants: the plant design should be according to standards as well, as well as the process controls in the plants and their housekeeping . 4. Protection Hardware: all hardware equipment being used in the plants of petrochemical organizations should be of proper quality. The higher amount of risk may be observed from the
Monday, September 23, 2019
Environmental Sustainability Master - Essay Example There are 76 data sets integrated to fully assess the likelihood of a certain country to preserve effectively its environmental resources. These data sets include tracking natural resource endowments, past and present pollution levels, environmental management efforts, and its capacity to improve its environmental performance. The broad range of environmental issues being faced by each country falls into five categories: environmental systems, reducing environmental stresses, reducing human vulnerability to environmental stresses, societal and institutional capacity to respond to environmental challenges, and global stewardship. Despite of the continuous urbanization process in most countries, Ireland is maintaining its rural character. An evident decline in the rural population was observed in 1901 when the rural population fell from 72 to 43 percent. Surprisingly, the country experienced a boom in rural population growth in 1981 and 1996. This rural growth is characterized by isolated houses in the countryside or cluster of houses outside towns and villages. The expected reason for such phenomena is the obvious importance of agriculture to the livelihood of the people. However, this is not the case. The observed rural settlement growth took place at a time of stagnating agricultural economy and a turn down in agricultural employment. Studies were able to establish that there is a strong relationship between changes in rural settlement and the trends in car ownership. There was a 140 percent increase in car ownership in Ireland between 1970 and 1994. Presently, the country is experiencing 5 percent annual growth in car ownership. Due to this, people are more capable to choose residence in one place and be employed in another; they become the so called commuters. (McGrath) The growth of rural settlements and the increase in the working population whose residences are situated in a place far from work, give way to the issue of car dependency. The majority of the rural population being car dependent contributes to certain environmental problems whose scopes are wider and whose effects transcends beyond the communities of the involved people. The issue of motor car dependency, therefore, is being linked as the main reason to more serious environmental issues. The motor car is tagged as environmentally unsustainable and less efficient mode of everyday transport. A car consumes twice much energy as a train and five times greater than a bus. Aside from this, it is a main contributor to air pollution, a problem which is of great global concern nowadays. A motor car's carbon dioxide emission, measured as grams per passenger kilometer, is 50 percent higher than a train and four times higher when the bus is the mode of transportation. The bottom line, Ireland, its people being dependent on private cars for personal travels is relatively unsustainable on transport related environmental grounds because of the per capita levels of energy consumptions and vehicle emissions (McGrath). Such is the main findings of the Dublin study. Luckily, the current state of our Science and Technology is far advanced from what we can and what we have in the past. Right now, innovations and discoveries are becoming a usual part in this fast-pace world. Ireland's mod e of transportation has a lot of potential of being modified and improved so as to avoid the further risk of subjecting
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Sales Management Essay In order to find a solution to his situation, Evans and those suffering from similar problems have to explore the factors that depress their sales. Diagnosing weaknesses in sales performance is the first stage in improving the level of sales. Sales management is about achieving specified goals. The main aim is to raise sales volume through with the use of certain techniques and methods. Evans, on the contrary, seems preoccupied with achieving goals on his own personal agenda, with little interest in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s prospects or his own sales record. Therefore, in order to increase his aptitude as a salesperson, Evans needs to make it a priority. Individuals all come to the workplace for the purpose of achieving their personal goals, something a good boss will always recognize. However, when these goals are incompatible with the goals of the company, the organization should either part with the employee or force him or her to reconsider those goals and their relative importance as compared to the working experience. Evans seems preoccupied with asserting his superiority over people he is selling to. He may be so much impressed with his past record as a technician if there was any that he is willing to compromise the opportunity to sell an item for the pleasure of confirming his superior knowledge. Alternatively, he may be longing for a career of a farmer deep inside and thus wants to see many times more that he is no less knowledgeable than his clients that actually use the machines. While the above is a matter for detailed psychoanalysis, Evans must in the first place find a solution to his problem. To make it happen, he must first of all recognize that there is a problem and establish a list of priorities. The first thing is to question oneself what is more important: being a good salesman or finding additional proof of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s technical expertise? If good sales skills are a priority, then Evans has to question himself: what are the qualities he is missing in order to improve his sales skills? It is the ability to build rapport with the customer? Or aptitude to convert this good relationship into sales numbers? If he answers Ã¢â¬Å"yesÃ¢â¬ to the first question, he may then probe further into understanding what exactly alienates his clients about his behavior. As a way to overcome the harmful trend, Evans can be put in a situation where he relives the whole incident, viewing it from the opposite side Ã¢â¬â that of the client. Thus, the company may pay a salesman to approach Evans with a proposition of purchasing some technological gadget. As the conversation develops, the fake salesman demonstrates that his understanding of the offered technology is way above that of Evans. Evans will have a chance to try out his reaction to this kind of behavior in salespeople Ã¢â¬â see whether he will be willing to purchase the item or not.Ã Most likely, being a competitively minded individual, Evans will be hurt to find out that someone with comparable background is more knowledgeable in the field than he is. As a result, he will have a chance to reassess his own line of behavior towards his customers. As another way to combat the harmful tendency, Evans can get a chance to assert his superiority in a way that will corroborate his expertise once and forever and release him of the need to compete with each prospective client he needs. To do this, he may need more interaction with qualified technicians so that he could impress them with his knowledge. The company in which Evans works can organize a competition on technical expertise among salespeople in which Evans would undoubtedly be the winner. He can then carry this title to publicize it to the farmers: the qualification would impress the farmers and make them think that they are indeed talking to an expert, while Evans will not be forced to assert his knowledge every time. In fact, he may simply need to find more qualified people than farmers to discuss technological side of his profession with. For this purpose he can visit various exhibitions and technological fairs and talk to professionals there. Evans can come up with new suggestions to make modifications of the current models, suggestions that can be useful since they are advanced by someone close to the actual users of agricultural machinery. If Evans shifts his focus from self-assertion to finding out about the needs of the farmers, he can score points with them and improve his relationships with prospective buyers of his product. However, getting rid of personal problems that inspire Evans to turn his sales process into a contest is only the first step. The second step is to learn the intricacies of results-oriented sales management. Evans has to realize that in his work his main ambition should be to provide an efficient interface between the company and its customers and to reveal to them the opportunities opened up by new agricultural machinery. If he chooses to make his approach to sales more customer-oriented, Evans can boost both his personal and corporate results. To produce better results, Evans should try to downplay his weaknesses as a salesman and build on his potential strengths. Building on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s unique strengths will give Evans the desired competitive advantage. Expertise and thorough understanding of the equipment he is selling may be one such strength. Evans has to learn to exploit this strength by turning it into an asset. For instance, he may stress that with his vast knowledge, he may be more helpful than other salespeople in preparing the farmer for the efficient use of the machinery, pointing out its minute details and revealing ways to extend the working life of the equipment. Besides, with his vast knowledge, Evans is the one to select the most suitable piece of machinery to perform the necessary task. He should also pay attention to his weakness that seems to lie in the inability to build a long-lasting relationship with consumers. The value of mutually beneficial relationships cannot be overrated in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business environment. This is especially true for markets like that for agricultural machinery, where a restricted number of customers make repeated purchases, with the cost of each being rather sizeable. Salespeople are at the forefront of the company and are directly responsible for generating long-standing seller-buyer relationships that will provide benefits to both sides. In their role as boundary spanners, salespeople are Ã¢â¬Å"the business-to-business marketers primary source of communication with customersÃ¢â¬ (Shwepker 2003). Aiming to build long-lasting relationships with customers, Evans will improve his sales orientation that will over the long term reflect in increases in his sales volume. To improve his sales orientation, Evans should be more interested in the potential customer. He needs to demonstrate his interest in the customer needs and success through asking questions related to the farmerÃ¢â¬â¢s business. So far EvansÃ¢â¬â¢s primary focus has been himself and his knowledge. Shifting the balance towards the customer, his or her business and personality can improve the relationship dramatically. Only then will Evans be able to convince the customer that he is genuinely looking for a good match between the customer and the product. Sales orientation is not only about building wonderful relationships; it should include the ability to convert these relationships into sales numbers. Thus, Evans should understand that he is in this business for selling, and the consumer is of primary interest to him as a potential buyer of his agricultural machinery. Everything that can discourage the decision to buy is taboo. On the contrary, every ethical way to induce such a decision is welcome. This rule obviously excludes contests aimed at humiliating the consumer through pointing out deficiency in his or her knowledge. Although raising some ethical issues, Evans can try to capitalize on his past mistakes by offering to repeat the contest to knowledgeable farmers who previously lost to him. If he succeeds in making them believe they won this time, this exhilaration can spur them on to buy his machinery this time. Overall, Evans needs to discard or solve his personal problems that motivate him to see a customer as a potential competitor on knowledge rather than a potential buyer. Making boost in sales numbers a priority, he will be able to improve his performance. To do this, he needs to turn his superior knowledge from a liability into an asset. Bibliography Schwepker, Charles H., Jr. Ã¢â¬Å"Customer-oriented selling: a review, extension, and directions for future research.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Personal Selling Sales Management (March 22, 2003).
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Personal Learning Statement for Dissertation Careful, precise and comprehensive planning is the key to success. Having known the importance of planning, I carefully planned my project with a step by step approach. The first step at this stage was the analysis of my strengths and weaknesses in order to decide the topic of my research project. I have always been interested in stock markets and business analysis of companies. This interest helped me learn more about business and financial analysis of companies and the different ways by which their financial performance and position can be analysed. The next important step was the formulation of a strategy as to how I would carry out the task in hand i.e. How to conduct the research? When to start? And most importantly whom should I choose as a mentor? In regards to the selection of a suitable mentor the article titled Making the most of your Mentor by Pippa Riley (11th August, 2005) published on ACCA website proved to be a life saver. I gave it a deep thought and after carefully considering all my options I chose my mentor to be my tutor Mr Muhammad Yasser Naqvi Syed, who is a Member of ACCA. A person who has helped me a great deal since the day I joined ACCA and has been a role model for me over the years. After concluding my decision I approached my mentor and I was extremely delighted when he accepted to be my mentor and guide me through the project. 2. Meetings with Mentor The role of Project Mentor is of great significance in the success of a research project. I had my first meeting with my chosen mentor on 5th January 2010, just after December 2009 ACCA examinations. In that meeting I introduced my mentor to the topic I had chosen and the reason behind my selection. I told him about my strategy and the means and methods I intended to use. I was confident that I had properly communicated the reasons and objectives of the topic I chose and my mentor seemed to be satisfied with my choice and strategy. Furthermore, I sought his advice on the matters such as research methods and we had a fruitful discussion. All in all, the first meeting was highly successful and cemented my ideas showing me a clear path to my objective. After my first meeting I was much more confident as I had a clear direction towards preparing the project. Our second meeting was scheduled for 12th March 2009. Before the meeting I reviewed my project at every stage and tried to make sure that there are no spellings or grammatical mistakes and after that I sent the completed part to my mentor for reviewing the progress. I also noted all the feed back from my mentor and tried to improve the quality of my work. In the meeting I demonstrated all the information I had gathered from different sources and asked my mentors advice on some unresolved issues. Before the 3rd meeting I sent a draft copy of the project to my mentor and noted his feed back and then I prepared slides in Microsoft PowerPoint along with extra slides showing charts and share prices. We held our third and final meeting on 14th April 2009. I was very confident of the work I had done and prepared for the presentation beforehand. I had a clear set of mind of what I had done and how I wanted to express that work in the presentation. My mentor was satisfied and equally amazed at my effort and congratulated me on my work. As stated in the guidelines, I had 15 minutes for the presentation; therefore I planned for my presentation well in advance and made sure that I included all the relevant information. Before I started my presentation, I handed out printed copies of my presentation to my mentor and my colleagues. I started my presentation by introducing J Sainsbury and giving a brief history of the company. After that I explained the various analyses and comparisons I had performed in order to analyze the financial position of J Sainsbury and to reach at a conclusion. I also explained the potential opportunities and the threats faced by the company. I used Microsoft Power Point to convey my message more efficiently and used graphical analysis to help my cause. My presentation was indeed a success and I felt all my hard work and dedication paid off. My mentor was pleasantly surprised and gave me a pat on my back. My strengths included a thorough understanding of the topic, detailed research work and good presentation skills while my weaknesses included taking a few more minutes outside my allowed quota. This experience was a massive confidence booster for me and it proved to me that I am very well capable of delivering top class professional presentations. 3. Self Assessment / Critical Evaluation As part of the skills and learning statement, I would now try to critically evaluate my performance and the skills I learned during the preparation of my project. One of the ways of evaluating the success of a project is to analyse whether it has answered all the relevant research questions satisfactorily or not. In formulating the strategy of my research project, I identified a few research questions which were critical to the overall success of my project. I focused my energies to finding the answers of these questions. Although I think I managed to answer most of the research questions in a satisfactory manner, there were a few areas where I could have done more research and allocated more time and resources. The feedback I got back from my mentor suggested that I have been able to achieve the objectives of my research project successfully. This being the first extensive research project carried out by me made the task a little bit daunting in the beginning and made me a little apprehensive about my abilities of carrying out the task with perfection. But as the project progressed, things started becoming clearer and my confidence levels were boosted. I chose to assess the business and financial performance of J Sainsbury plc over the last three years. J Sainsburys plc is a United Kingdom-based company principally engaged in grocery and related retailing, and financial services. Financial ratios were used to asses the financial performance of the company over a three year period and then I tried to explain the reasons for variations in the ratios. I kept sending my draft incomplete project to my mentor and requested him to assess my performance under the guidelines of Oxford Brookes University so I could judge the quality of my work done so far. For this purpose I sent several emails to my mentor and made notes of every feed back. I carefully assessed the external position by looking at the macro environment by using Porters Five Forces Model. I tried to do well on this analysis by giving a detailed overview and try to look at the wider side of the picture. I highlighted critical strengths and weaknesses and the resulting opportunities and threats faced by the company by using a technique called SWOT analysis. This exercise was very beneficial to get a thorough understanding of the company and also helped me to come up with some recommendations to capitalise on the strengths of the company and eliminate or neutralize its weaknesses. 4. Interpersonal and Communication Skills The term interpersonal skill is very often used to measure the personal ability to operate within the business organization through social communication and interaction. And the Communication skills are the skills which enable people to communicate effectively with each other. It also includes the ability to speak in public, meetings, presentations and writing letters. In my RAP it relates to the communication skills which I demonstrated during the meetings with my mentor and customers. The meetings with my mentor helped me to assess my interpersonal and communication skills and identify the areas which needed improvement. Questioning is one of the most important utensil in communication in order to derive answers and achieve confirmation. Since it is a fundamental tool in seeking information it is was imperative to get direct answers during the initial stages of the project as I required direction from my mentor. However I realised that getting direct information was not easy as the response is directly dependent on the style of question. During the project I used both closed questions where I needed a confirmation of what I knew and open questions where the intention was to get as much information as possible. Towards the end of the project, when I had passed the data gathering stage I was seeking specific answers, this also entailed asking probing questions in order to clarify many areas. Restating information in a form of a question enabled me to understand difficult factors. Effective communication also entails speaking and listening. I used both gestures and a variety of verbal and non verbal means for instance, nodding my head, making notes of important points, and basic words of confirmation to express a form of acknowledgement seen as a verification or feedback that is identified as active or reflective listening, as I would continuously be seeking to understand what my mentor was stating. This was reinforced with the use of eye contact to show that I understood and was interested in what was being communicated to me by my mentor. Prior to meetings I would make sure that my mobile phone was switched off, to reduce disturbance that was in my control. These activities helped me to improve my interpersonal and communication skills and also made me more confident in my approach. 5. How RAP Helped In Studies / Employment The preparation of RAP has helped me to gain certain invaluable and precious skills which have helped me both in my studies and my working life. I learned a lot of new skills and techniques which has given me an edge over my competitors in the job market. The preparation of RAP helped me immensely in better understanding of professional subjects of ACCA such as P3 (Business Analysis) and P2 (Corporate Reporting). As a part of my RAP I used different financial and non financial techniques described in these subjects to asses the business and financial performance of JS Sainsbury. It was a great exercise for me and gave me a chance to apply all my knowledge gained from ACCA qualification in to a practical company scenario. RAP also improved my skills in Microsoft Office. I learned a lot of new features of MS Word, MS Excel and MS Power Point. These skills are still helping me in my current job and have increased my work efficiency. I have also had a pay rise from my employer since preparing my RAP, underlining the improvement I have made. RAP has also helped me polishing my interactive skills as I improved this skill by collecting financial and non financial information about the company from different sources. These interactive skills have helped me a lot in my current job and as a result I am much more confident while interacting with clients during audits and client visits. The project helped me develop my IT skills. I added not only to my accounting knowledge, but also learned different aspects of planning, organising, time management, writing, and public speaking. These skills will be of use to me in all aspects of my life.
Friday, September 20, 2019
The Language and Uses of Religion in George Balcombe In his 1836 novel, George Balcombe, Nathaniel Beverley Tucker presents the Southern Elite male discourse on religion. Throughout the novel, the speeches of Balcombe and William reveal that they use language that refers to God, but more often they embrace Enlightenment ideals such as reason and self-reliance. Several passages speak directly to the elite idea of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s love, GodÃ¢â¬â¢s intended ways for men and women to love one another, and GodÃ¢â¬â¢s ordained roles for women and slaves. Many other portions of the text reveal differences between the ways in which elite men, non-elite men, and women talk about God and value religious faith. Evangelical piety posed many challenges to the patriarchal order of early 19th century southern society, so it is no surprise that elite men prioritized attributes other than Christian faith and that religion took on different meanings for people with different levels of status in the social hierarchy. Lindman and Wyatt-Brown describe the assimilation of evangelicalism into the existing social order and the changing definitions of honor between the time of the revolution and the 1830s. LyerlyÃ¢â¬â¢s descriptions of the religious experience of Methodist women and slaves provides a context for understanding how the role of religion differed between elite men and other groups. These historiansÃ¢â¬â¢ works enrich the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of TuckerÃ¢â¬â¢s presentation of the white elite male discourse on the role of religion in the antebellum period. Balcombe and William indicate their sense of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s presence in their lives throughout their dialogues. In their first conversation, Balcombe excuses WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s faux pas by waxing lyrical that men must make mistakes in order to learn virtue, and concludes that Ã¢â¬Å"it is GodÃ¢â¬â¢s plan of accomplishing his greatest end, and must be the best planÃ¢â¬ (v1, 9). While this reference to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s power seems sincere, other references appear more careless, such as the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"God forbidÃ¢â¬ (v1, 9), which these characters use throughout the novel. WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s remark that Ã¢â¬Å"My talkative host now gave his tongue a holyday, while his teeth took their turn at workÃ¢â¬ is an almost whimsical appropriation of religious terminology to describe mundane events. Often in their dialogues, Ã¢â¬Å"GodÃ¢â¬ is interchangeable with Ã¢â¬Å"ProvidenceÃ¢â¬ - in one place, William speaks of Ã¢â¬Å"GodÃ¢â¬â¢s providenceÃ¢â¬ (v1,266). They personify P rovidence and attribute to it most circumstances in their life, in phrases such as Ã¢â¬Å"the pleasure that Providence sends meÃ¢â¬ (v1,17).
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Sex Education Messages In The Media Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The media should not be blamed for the sexuality of american youth. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã First concern in sexual activity is too much media. Television is something that kids watch all the time. Television shows that show sexual activity and children pick up on those events quickly. Teenagers dream about marrying someone who is good looking and has money and then starting a family with them. A lot of teens watch soap operas and romantic shows. Teens see kids, their age, having sex and getting pregnant and they think they can do it, too. Parents should watch what types of TV shows and movies that their children are watching. TV commercials are explicit when it comes to showing sex. Teens can pick up ideas about sex from commercials. Such as, the Trojan Man and the Durex commercials shown frequently on MTV and other stations. The media could be more discrete about that sort of material on the airwaves. In light of these statistics, it would appear that the nonjudgemental/safe-sex approach can add up to a dangerous combination. Dr. Theresa Crenshaw, a past president of the American Association of Sex Educators, Counselors and Therapists, in testimony before a House subcommittee in February 1987, said, Ã¢â¬Å"To say that the use of condoms is Ã¢â¬Ësafe sexÃ¢â¬â¢ is in fact playing Russian roulette. A lot of people will die in this dangerous game.Ã¢â¬ Yet despite warnings like this, schoolteachers routinely present homosexuality to their students as just another option about which they must decide for themselves (Kilpatrick 598). On the other hand, with the popular television show, Ellen, the main character and the actress who played her, Ellen Degenerous, was an open lesbian. This views homosexuals as nice, fun loving people and not the hated figures that some community activists portray them as. In turn, the media can be a blessing to the gay community because they show the lighter side of their sexual preference. Then again, some parents view this as a wrong statement and refuse to let their children watch this display. Another show is Will and Grace, Will is a gay man living with his friend Grace. This show was aired after the Ellen show was cancelled because of itÃ¢â¬â¢s bad ratings after she came out into the limelight with her Ã¢â¬Å"secretÃ¢â¬ . Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Second concern in the media. All sorts of teenÃ¢â¬â¢s and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s magazines that are in stores today are filled with sex and what types of protection to use. Parents should watch what their kids are reading.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The rigidity of class structure is the culprit for the vast number of inequities in society. Power is concentrated in the hands of a small sector; leaving a few individuals to have more authority and influence, in comparison to others. The construction of class structure identifies the way groups are divided into social positions. Differences stemming from social position are further exemplified by the accessibility to valuable resourcesÃ¢â¬âsuch as wealth, education, occupation, and status. Those with distinguished command in society have access to these increasingly wide ranges of resources, which may be present in limited forms to the less powerful. Used as a device of supremacy, power is a style of control when the basis is acquiring these societal possessions. Even though class structure is considered to be fluid in nature, for some it is a complex web of entanglements hard to deal with it. Groups who suffer from social and material deprivations are not doing so by choice, b ut hugely in part to economical and occupational factors. These prominent distinctions have led several to fall victim to the systems of hierarchy. Built within these schemes are the inequalities that arise due to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s position; and captured inside are the outcomes that influence levels of individual, educational, and occupational independence. People who do observe the inequities between classes may feel the impact of social stratification in various ways. Similarly the dynamics of class structure are very significant elements found throughout the works of Virginia Woolf, George Orwell, and Karl Marx. They are all in agreement that society host the series of conflicts underlying that of class structure. Class structure as a whole denotes differing realit... ...ist Feminism." Critical Sociology (Brill Academic Publishers) 25.2/3 (1999): 196-217. Academic Search Complete. Web. 19 Mar. 2012. Marx, Karl, and Frederick Engels. Marx/Engels Selected Works, Vol. One. Moscow. Progress Publishers, 1969, N. pag. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist- manifesto/index.htm. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. Orwell, George. "Shooting an Elephant". The Seagull Reader Essays. 2nd Edition. Ed. Joseph Kelly. New York. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc, 2008. 243-250. Print. Peet, Richard. "Inequality and Poverty: A Marxist-Geographic Theory." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 65.4 (1975): 564-571. Academic Search Complete. Web. 19 Mar. 2012. Woolf, Virginia. A Room of One's Own. New York. Quality Paperback Book Club, 1992. Print. Woolf, Virginia. Three Guineas. New York. Quality Paperback Book Club, 1992. Print.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Environmental factors may contribute to the increasing prevalence of obesity, especially in black and low-income populations. In this paper, the geographic distribution of fast food restaurants is examined relative to neighborhood sociodemographics. Methods Using geographic information system software, all fast-food restaurants within the city limits of New Orleans, Louisiana, in 2001 were mapped. Buffers around census tracts were generated to simulate 1-mile and 0.5-mile Ã¢â¬Å"shopping areasÃ¢â¬ around and including each tract, and fast food restaurant density (number of restaurants per square mile) was calculated for each area. Using multiple regression, the geographic association between fast food restaurant density and black and low-income neighborhoods was assessed, while controlling for environmental confounders that might also influence the placement of restaurants (commercial activity, presence of major highways, and median home values). Results In 156 census tracts, a total of 155 fast food restaurants were identified. In the regression analysis that included the environmental confounders, fast-food restaurant density in shopping areas with 1-mile buffers was independently correlated with median household income and percent of black residents in the census tract. Similar results were found for shopping areas with 0.5-mile buffers. Predominantly black neighborhoods have 2.4 fast-food restaurants per square mile compared to 1.5 restaurants in predominantly white neighborhoods. Conclusions The link between fast food restaurants and black and low-income neighborhoods may contribute to the understanding of environmental causes of the obesity epidemic in these populations.
Monday, September 16, 2019
We, the researchers, would like to extend our gratitude to all those people who helped and supported us in completing this term paper. We would like to thank our beloved professor, Fr. Kim Lachica, S. J. , for the lessons, guidance and advices he bestowed upon us. He inspired us to work efficiently on this project. In addition, we would like to thank him for motivating us to work hard in achieving our goals in life.Moreover, we would also want to express our gratefulness to the one who gave all of his time to us in the interview and shared his personal life experiences as an entrepreneur which also motivated us to work harder in our fields. He is no other than Mr. Steffen Eisenbarh, the owner of GROUPWORX101 Company. For without him, we would not finish this project. In addition, we express our sincere gratitude to our families who understood and encouraged us in every time we spent in making this term paper.Last but not the least, we would like to extend our heart-felt gratitude to our Almighty Father for His unending and unconditional support He had given upon us. He enlightened us throughout the struggles and experience weÃ¢â¬â¢ve been through in making this term paper. Without the help and support of the particular persons that mentioned above, we would face many difficulties while doing this term paper. Again, we take this opportunity to express our gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this term paper.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
At the outset, I would like to state that it is highly unusual for me to get such a grade. I have been a diligent and hardworking student my whole life. At the same time, I understand that there are certain learning curves and that as one moves up the academic ladder there are more challenges. One such challenge is that of High School, especially for one who sets high standards. I have always dreamed of obtaining the Advanced Regents Diploma. In order to accomplish such, I have had to take and pass several courses that are more difficult than the ones that are required for the Local RegentÃ¢â¬â¢s Diploma.I have had to pass the Math B2/B3 regents course, the math regent examination and the anxiety of having to meet and perhaps surpass my academic goals. I realize that the pursuit of such lofty goals is not an easy one and I have gladly taken this challenge on to myself. I have always believed in the value of a good education and have never been afraid to work hard for it. While it s ets me apart from everyone else in my class, it also presents novel obstacles. I do not regret this decision to take a more difficult path in life because I have chosen not to be average but to face the odds and achieve my goals.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Abstract Serial killings are defined as Ã¢â¬Å"having three or more victims in as many locations and as different events with the killer having a Ã¢â¬Ëcool offÃ¢â¬â¢ between each attackÃ¢â¬ (Fox & Levin, 2005, p. 17). Serial killings also happen over a period of months or years with the killer leading a normal life in between. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental process. Ã¢â¬Å"There are grounds for the point of view that serial killers act from a conscious perspective but are influenced by a variety of unconscious drivesÃ¢â¬ (Holmes & Burger, 1988, p. 98). There are different views of what makes a serial killer, ranging from mental instability or defect to problematic and abusive childhoods. Looking at the murders, methods, victims, and motivations of three different serial killers received from coroner reports, witness accounts, and their own point of view provides an opportunity to see any similarities behind what drove them to kill. Psychology of a Serial Killer Jack the Ripper Considered one of the most infamous of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s serial killers, Jack the RipperÃ¢â¬â¢s murder spree lasted from 1888 to 1892 in the East End of London. Also known as the Whitechapel Murderer, he attacked prostitutes during late night and early morning hours, mutilating his victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ bodies with the skill of someone who knows basic anatomy. Jack the RipperÃ¢â¬â¢s first known victim was Mary Nichols, a prostitute, who was found early in the morning in a gateway in Bucks Row, Whitechapel on 31 August 1888. Ã¢â¬Å"She was lying on her back with her legs straight out, skirts raised almost to her waist and throat slashed almost to the point of beheadingÃ¢â¬ (Jones, 2010). His second victim was Annie Chapman, another prostitute, found 8 September 1888 in the backyard of 29 Hanbury Street at 6am. The official coroner report stated: The left arm was placed across the left breast. The legs were drawn up, the feet resting on the ground, and the knees turned outwards. The face was swollen and turned on the right side. The tongue protruded between the front teeth, but not beyond the lips. The tongue was evidently much swollen. The front teeth were perfect as far as the first molar, top and bottom and very fine teeth they were. The body was terribly mutilatedÃ¢â¬ ¦the stiffness of the limbs was not marked, but was evidently commencing. He noticed that the throat was dissevered deeply; that the incisions through the skin were jagged and reached right round the neck. On the wooden paling between the yard in question and the next, smears of blood, corresponding to where the head of the deceased lay, were to be seen. These were about 14 inches from the ground and immediately above the part where the blood from the neck was pooled. (Jones, 2010) Later, after the body was moved to the morgue, the autopsy conducted revealed Annie Chapman was missing her womb. The third victim was Elizabeth Stride on 30 September 1888. She was found at one in the morning in Dutfield Yard. Her throat was cut but, Ã¢â¬Å"she was lying on the ground as though quietly placed thereÃ¢â¬ (Jones, 2010), obviously, one of Jack the Rippe rÃ¢â¬â¢s less horrific murders. Roughly forty-five minutes after finding Stride, the body of Catherine Eddowes was found in Mitre Square laying on her back, clothes thrown above her waist and her throat slit as well. Jack the RipperÃ¢â¬â¢s fifth and supposedly final victim was Mary Kelly on 9 November 1888. She was found that morning at 10:45 in the morning in her room at Millers Court. The coroner report stated: The body was lying naked in the middle of the bed, the shoulders flat, but the axis of the body inclined to the left side of the bed. The head was turned on the left cheek. The left arm was close to the body with the forearm flexed at a right angle & lying across the abdomen. The right arm was slightly abducted from the body & rested on the mattress, the elbow bent & the forearm supine with the fingers clenched. The legs were wide apart, the left thigh at right angles to the trunk & the right forming an obtuse angle with the pubes. The whole of the surface of the abdomen & thighs was removed & the abdominal Cavity emptied of its viscera. The breasts were cut off, the arms mutilated by several jagged wounds & the face hacked beyond recognition of the features. The tissues of the neck were severed all round down to the bone. The viscera were found in various parts viz: the uterus & Kidneys with one breast under the head, the other breast by the Rt foot, the Liver between the feet, the intestines by the right side & the spleen by the left side of the body. The flaps removed from the abdomen and thighs were on a table. The bed clothing at the right corner was saturated with blood, & on the floor beneath was a pool of blood covering about 2 feet squareÃ¢â¬ ¦ The face was gashed in all directions the nose cheeks, eyebrows and ears being partly removed. The lips were blanched & cut by several incisions running obliquely down to the chin. There were also numerous cuts extending irregularly across all the features. (Jones, 2010) Police later found that at four in the morning, neighbors had heard muffled calls of murder but had ignored them believing them to be from a case of domestic violence. Little else is known of Jack the Ripper as he was never caught. Speculations about his identity range from the severely impoverished to the very wealthy, and suspects are being added to the list to this day. John Haigh A respectable, well dressed, middle-class man of the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s, John Haigh was a depraved killer who frequently blamed his strict religious upbringing for his actions. He was raised in a purist and anti-clerical household where he was cut off from normal society and his only source of entertainment came from the Bible. According to HaighÃ¢â¬â¢s father, the world was evil and a person who sinned became marked and evil. The fear of gaining such a mark caused Haigh to be terrified of doing anything wrong. Ã¢â¬Å"It is said that a turning point in the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s developing psyche came when Haigh realized that no such blemish would appear, despite having lied or committed some other questionable behavior. He then started to believe that he was invincible and could get away with anythingÃ¢â¬ (UK, 2005-2011) thus causing Haigh to become a manipulating and compulsive liar. After leaving his parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ home, Haigh became a salesman and took to illegal activities such as fraud that usually landed him in prison serving short sentences. HaighÃ¢â¬â¢s first victim was from the McSwan Family, a family he had come to know well; he lived with them and worked for them before marrying the daughter later. September 1944, Haigh took Donald McSwan to his residence where he then killed him; Ã¢â¬Å"the murder was carefully planned Ã¢â¬â having bludgeoned his victim with a club (or a similar weapon); Haigh then destroyed the body in a vat of acid. When bone and flesh had been reduced to a sludge-like mess, he poured the gooey residue onto the dirt surface of an open yard behind the buildingÃ¢â¬ (John Haigh-Acid Bath Killer, n.d.) When DonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s parents began asking Haigh about their sonÃ¢â¬â¢s disappearance, he concocted a lie then lured them to his residence and disposed of them in the same fashion. He forged all their assets into his name and then promptly lost it gambling and began looking towards murder again. HaighÃ¢â¬â¢s next victims were old retireeÃ¢â¬â¢s, Rosalie and Archibald Henderson that he met by acting as though he was going to buy a house from them. February 1948, he drove Dr. Henderson to his workshop where he shot him in the head and disposed of the body by dumping it into a vat of sulphuric acid. He then returned to Mrs. Henderson and told her that her husband had taken sick and needed her. She accompanied Haigh to his workshop where she met the same lethal fate as her husband. In both the McSwan and Henderson murders, Haigh emulated his victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ handwriting and sent notes to their servants, relatives and friends; he explained that they had moved to Australia or some other distant place, mentioning that Ã¢â¬ËMr. HaighÃ¢â¬â¢ would settle their affairs. (John Haigh-Acid Bath Killer, n.d.) Haigh gained a substantial amount of money from the HendersonÃ¢â¬â¢s which he again lost to gambling. Haigh found and killed his next victim on 18 February 1949. Mrs. Durand-Deacon accompanied him to the Gloucester Road address. As soon as she entered the basement premises, Haigh shot her in the back of the head, killing her instantly. He stripped her and dumped her body into a 40-gallon vat of sulphuric acid. Haigh drained the receptacle through a basement sewer; afterwards, he scraped the sludge from the vat and dumped this onto the dirt of the back yard. This was hard work and Haigh, according to his later statements, paused to go to the nearby Ye Olde Ancient PriorÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant where he ate an egg on toast. He then returned to his workshop to Ã¢â¬Å"tidy upÃ¢â¬ . (John Haigh-Acid Bath Killer, n.d.) This would be the murder that got him caught. Haigh decided to play the concerned citizen since his latest victim was so close to home so he approached her closet friend, Mrs. Lane, and asked about Mrs. Durand -Deacon. After replying that the friend had thought Mrs. Durand-Deacon had left with him, Haigh quickly denied the accusation. The following day, he asked the same question to Mrs. Lane who decided to report the disappearance to the police. Haigh accompanied her to the police station to navigate suspicion away from himself, but one police officer preformed a background investigation on Haigh and because of what he saw became suspicious. Haigh was arrested and sentenced to death regardless of his claims and demonstrations of insanity. Jesse H. Pomeroy Ã¢â¬Å"The Boy Fiend, Jesse Pomeroy, is the youngest convicted serial killer in historyÃ¢â¬ (Wilhiem, 2010). Starting with a troubled childhood due to a birth defect, Pomeroy was the subject of ridicule among his peers and his father couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t stand the sight of him and would viciously beat him when angry before his mother chased him off. It was stated that; Jesse was an intelligent boy, if somewhat anti-social. He would not join the other boys in baseball games or other athletic pursuits, but he was fond of playing Ã¢â¬Ëscouts and IndiansÃ¢â¬â¢ where he would invariably be an Indian and devise elaborate imaginary tortures for captive scouts (Wilhiem, 2010). PomeroyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother was the first to notice something was wrong with her son after finding the heads twisted off her parakeetsÃ¢â¬â¢ heads. The start of PomeroyÃ¢â¬â¢s decent into murder began in Boston with Billy Paine who was found beaten in an outhouse. Soon after the police found Tracy Hayden in the same outhouse where Ã¢â¬Å"He was tied, stripped naked, and whipped across the back. The boy hit him in the face with a board, breaking his nose and knocking out two teeth. Then he threatened to cut off TracyÃ¢â¬â¢s penisÃ¢â¬ (Wilhiem, 2010). PomeroyÃ¢â¬â¢s third victim was Robert Maier who withstood the same brutal treatment. Chelsea police interviewed hundreds of boys but received no leads. Rumors began to circulate about the description of the killer and the picture people portrayed were that of the devil. Pomeroy was named Ã¢â¬Å"The Boy TorturerÃ¢â¬ after stripping and beating Johnny Balch. PomeroyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, suspected her son, and moved to South Boston with her family where the assaults continued only more often and more inhumane. Ã¢â¬Å"On August 17, seven-year-old George Pratt was abducted and wa s not just flogged. This time the abductor stuck a needle in his arm and his groin, and bit chunks of flesh from his face and buttocksÃ¢â¬ (Wilhiem, 2010). Pomeroy began using a knife to stab his victims repeatedly before attempting to cut off their genitalia. Robert Gould was the eighth victim and able to give police a useful description of his assailant. The parents of Gould refused to allow him to be escorted around to identify his attacker, and police were forced to ask PomeroyÃ¢â¬â¢s seventh victim, Joseph Kennedy, who was then shown around the local schools and even came face to face with Pomeroy and was unable to identify him as the killer. That day, after school, for reasons Jesse was never able to explain, he went to the police station. Seeing Joseph Kennedy there, he quickly turned and left the station, but a policeman followed him out and brought him back. Now, looking closer, young Joseph saw the white eye and identified Jesse as his torturer. Jesse was held in a cell overnight and was persuaded to confess. The next day all of the victims identified him as their attacker. Jesse, then 12 years old, was sentenced to the reformatory, Ã¢â¬Ëfor the term of his minorityÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â a period of six years. (Wilhiem, 2010) Pomeroy acted as though he was better within the reformatory and seventeen months after his arrest, Pomeroy was placed on probation and set free. Ã¢â¬Å"March 18, 1874, 10-year-old Katie Curran left her home to buy a notebook for school and never returned. She was last seen entering Mrs. PomeroyÃ¢â¬â¢s store. Everyone in the neighborhood knew JesseÃ¢â¬â¢s history and the Corrans feared the worst.Ã¢â¬ (Wilhiem, 2010) At the police station Captain Dyer assured Mrs. Curran that Jesse could not be involvedÃ¢â¬âhe had been completely rehabilitated; besides he was only known to attack little boys. Ã¢â¬Å"KatieÃ¢â¬â¢s father was a Catholic and reflecting the attitudes of the time; local rumors said he sent her to a conventÃ¢â¬ (Wilhiem, 2010). Thirty-six days later a little boy, Horace Millen, was seen walking toward the wharf. Later that day MillenÃ¢â¬â¢s body was found half naked on the beach; he was stabbed multiple times in the chest, almost beheaded and half castrated. Pomeroy was the first person to come to the police chiefÃ¢â¬â¢s mind upon hearing about the murders, but he quickly dismissed it on the assumption that Pomeroy was still in the reformatory, his men quickly corrected the assumption and were ordered to arrest Pomeroy. Pomeroy denied all charges, even when confronted with forensic evidence, until he was taken to see the dead body of Millen where Ã¢â¬Å"He admitted he killed Horace, something made him do it. He was sorry and wanted to leave. He told the policemen: Ã¢â¬ËPut me somewhere, so I canÃ¢â¬â¢t do such thingsÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Wilhiem, 2010). PomeroyÃ¢â¬â¢s motherÃ¢â¬â¢s business suffered due to the recent events with her son, and she was forced to sell to a grocery chain. During renovations the decomposing body of Katie Curran was found under a heap of ashes and was only identifiable from her clothing. PomeroyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother and brother were arrested for murder but were cleared by Pomeroy confessing to CurranÃ¢â¬â¢s murder after interrogation. Later, Pomeroy claimed to have only admitted guilt to save his mother. PomeroyÃ¢â¬â¢s lawyers fought for the insanity plea but were denied because prosecution proved he knew right from wrong, Pomeroy was proven guilty for first degree murder at the age of 16 and sentenced to life in prison. Conclusion Looking at all three killers penchant for mutilating their victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ bodies, the almost randomness in choosing of their victims, and the childhoods of at least two of the killers, mental trauma sustained during adolescence played a large part in the decline into becoming killers where they took the atrocities they viewed or had been done to them and focused them on their victims as a form of control and improper coping. Unfortunately, in the case of Jack the Ripper, we cannot look into his childhood and compare it to that of Pomeroy or Haigh, but we can deduce that with his choosing of female prostitutes and his horrific mutilation of them, he was traumatized as a child by his mother whether it was because she herself was a prostitute and he often saw her in-coitus with her customers or his mother was extremely controlling like that of the mother of Ed Gein, and after her death, possibly caused by him, he started reaching out and punishing her over and over again using local pr ostitutes as the subjects of his disdain. PomeroyÃ¢â¬â¢s abuse and actions against his victims were a reflection of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s actions upon him that, as a way of control, he chose victims younger and smaller than himself to take control of the situation that he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t at home; in essence, he was abusing himself for not being able to do anything against his own father. Haigh, though having an abusive and extremely volatile childhood, did not kill or choose his victims out of anything other than financial gain. Looking at his case files, we see the pattern that after he gambled away the profits of his previous killings he would then find new Ã¢â¬ËpreyÃ¢â¬â¢ to lure into his killing trap. His attempts at pleading insanity fell through because of his pattern of choosing only wealthy or profitable victims that benefitted him in the end and elevated his status. Applying criminological theory to these serial killers is possible, but narrowing their actions to just one is impossible. Some would say that Pomeroy was showing differential association and he had learned his behavior from his father or that strain could apply to both him and Haigh, though HaighÃ¢â¬â¢s was from a financial stand point rather than from an inability to cope with his father beating him. Jack the Ripper is the only killer who would be difficult to apply any theory to with as little as we know of him or his childhood. References David Lester, P. (1995). Serial Killers: The Insatiable Passion. Philadelphia: Charles Press Publishers, Inc. Fox, J. A., & Levin, J. (2005). Extreme Killing: Understanding Serial and Mass Murder. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage Publications, Inc. Holmes, R. M., & Burger, J. D. (1988). Serial Murder. London: Sage Publications, Inc. John Haigh-Acid Bath Killer. (n.d.). Retrieved from horrorfind.com: http://usersites.horrorfind.com/home/horror/bedlambound/library/haigh.html Jones, R. (2010). Jack The Ripper: History, Victims, Letters, Suspects. Retrieved from Jack The Ripper History: http://www.jack-the-ripper.org/ Pomeroy, J. (2002). Autobiography of Jesse H. Pomeroy. Retrieved from http://kobek.com: http://kobek.com/autobiography.pdf UK, A. (2005-2011). Bibliography- John Haigh: The Acid bath Murderer on Crime and Investigation Network. Retrieved from CRIME FILE Ã¢â¬â Famous criminal: John Haigh: The Acid Bath Murderer : http://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/crime-files/jo hn-haigh-the-acid-bath-murderer/biography.html Wilhiem, R. (2010, August 7). Jesse Pomeroy: Ã¢â¬Å"Boy FiendÃ¢â¬ . Retrieved from Murder By Gaslight: http://murderbygasslight.blogspot.com/2010/08/jesse-pomeroy-boston-boy-fiend.html